Allopurinol is a drug to lower uric acid levels due to gout or cancer therapy that causes increased uric acid levels (hyperuricemia) . This drug is also used in the treatment of kidney stones.

Allopurinol belongs to the class of xanthine-oxidase inhibitors. This drug lowers the level of uric acid in the blood by inhibiting xanthine oxidase, the enzyme that plays a role in the formation of uric acid. It should be noted that allopurinol cannot overcome pain when a gout attack occurs .

Allopurinol brand names : Allopurinol, Ponuric , Puricemia, Sinoric, Zyloric

What Is Allopurinol?

Group Prescription drugs
Category Xanthine-oxidase inhibitors
Benefits Lowers uric acid levels
Consumed by Adults and children
Allopurinol for pregnant and lactating women Category C:  Studies on experimental animals show side effects on the fetus, but there are no controlled studies on pregnant women.

Medicines can only be used if the magnitude of the expected benefit exceeds the magnitude of the risk to the fetus.

Allopurinol can be absorbed into breast milk. If you are breastfeeding, do not use this medicine without first consulting your doctor.

Drug form Tablets

Warnings Before Taking Allopurinol

Before taking allopurinol, you need to pay attention to the following things:

  • Do not take allopurinol if youallergic to this drug. Tell your doctor about any allergies you have.
  • Tell the doctor if you have ever or are suffering from liver disease, kidney disease, diabetes , thyroid disease, hypertension, and congestive heart disease .
  • Tell your doctor if you are suffering from cancer or undergoing chemotherapy .
  • Tell your doctor if you are undergoing a certain diet program or are fasting .
  • Do not drive a vehicle or do activities that require alertness after using allopurinol, because this drug can cause drowsiness or dizziness .
  • Do not consume alcoholic beverages during treatment with allopurinol, as this can aggravate complaints or increase the risk of side effects.
  • Allopurinol can cause gout attacks more often in the first few weeks of use. Contact the doctor if the condition does not improve after 6 weeks of taking the medicine.
  • See a doctor immediately if an allergic drug reaction , serious side effect, or overdose occurs after consuming allopurinol.

Dosage and Administration of Allopurinol

Allopurinol can only be consumed based on a doctor's prescription. The following is the general dose of allopurinol based on the patient's condition:

Condition: Gout or gout

  • Adults: Initial dose 100 mg per day. The dose can be increased gradually 200-300 mg per day, For severe conditions, the initial dose is 100 mg per day which will be increased every week 400-600 mg per day

Condition: Treatment of kidney stones

  • Adults: 200–300 mg consumed 1–2 times per day.

Condition: Hyperuricemia caused by chemotherapy

  • Adults: 600–800 mg per day consumed 1–2 times per day for 2–3 days before undergoing chemotherapy.
  • Children : 150–300 mg per day for 2–3 days before undergoing chemotherapy. The maximum dose is 400 mg per day.

How to Consume Allopurinol Correctly

Follow the  doctor 's advice and read the information on the medicine package before consuming allopurinol. Do not reduce or increase the dose without first consulting a doctor.

Allopurinol can be taken after meals. Try to consume allopurinol at the same time every day for maximum treatment. Do not stop taking the medicine even if you feel better, except on the doctor's advice.

If you have just had a gout attack, make sure the symptoms have completely disappeared before taking allopurinol. This is because allopurinol can cause gout attacks more often in the first few weeks of use.

For patients who forget to take allopurinol, it is recommended to do so immediately if the break with the next consumption schedule is not too close. If it's close, ignore it and don't double the dose.

During treatment with allopurinol, your doctor may ask you to do   routine blood tests . Follow the examination schedule that has been determined by the doctor.

The use of allopurinol should be accompanied by the adoption of a healthy lifestyle, for example by drinking a lot of mineral water, consuming healthy food, reducing the consumption of alcoholic beverages, and maintaining a healthy body weight.

Store allopurinol in a dry place away from direct sunlight. Keep this medicine out of the reach of children.

Allopurinol Interactions with Other Drugs

Here are some risks of interaction that can occur if using allopurinol with certain drugs:

  • Increased risk of skin rash if used with ampicillin or amoxicillin
  • Decreased levels of allopurinol in the blood if used with probenecid
  • Decreased effectiveness of anticoagulant drugs, such as warfarin
  • Increased risk of side effects from allopurinol if used with thiazide diuretics, such as hydrochlorothiazide
  • Increased levels  of ciclosporin in the blood
  • Increased risk of severe bone marrow dysfunction if used with azathioprine or mercaptopurine

Side Effects and Dangers of Allopurinol

Some of the side effects that can occur after taking allopurinol are:

  • Nausea
  • Stomachache
  • Diarrhea
  • Headache
  • Drowsy
  •  Turn
  • Joint pain

Consult a doctor if the above side effects do not subside immediately or become more severe. You need to see a doctor immediately if you experience a drug allergic reaction or more serious side effects, such as:

  • Easy bruising or unusual bleeding
  • Jaundice , dark urine, upper right abdominal pain, or loss of appetite
  • Infectious diseases that can be characterized by symptoms such as fever , chills, or sore throat
  • Kidney disease that can be characterized by infrequent urination, pain when urinating, or bloody urine
  • Drastic weight loss, eye pain, or vision impairment
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