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Aminoglycosides are a group of antibiotics used to treat bacterial infections. Aminoglycosides are generally used to treat gram-negative aerobic bacterial infections, but are sometimes used with other drugs to treat gram-positive bacterial infections.

Aminoglycosides work by interfering with the protein formation process that builds bacterial cell walls. These antibiotics make the bacteria produce proteins with the wrong structure and instead damage the bacterial cell wall. With the breakdown of the cell wall, the bacteria will eventually die.

Aminoglycosides are used to treat severe gram-negative bacterial infections, such as E. coli infections , typhoid fever, cholera , and pertussis . Here are some other conditions that can also be treated with aminoglycosides:

  • Drug-resistant tuberculosis ( MDR TB )
  • Staphylococcus infection
  • Pneumonia and upper respiratory tract infections
  • Endocarditis
  • Sepsis
  • Urinary tract infection
  • Skin and soft tissue infections
  • Severe infections of the digestive organs
  • Eye infection or ear infection
  • Severe pelvic inflammation
  • Tularemia
  • bubonic plague

Drugs belonging to the aminoglycoside group can be found in various dosage forms, including tablets, syrups, capsules, gels, creams, ointments, eye drops, eye ointments, ear drops, injections, infusions.

Precautions Before Using Aminoglycosides:

  • Do not use aminoglycoside drugs if you are allergic to these antibiotics. Always tell your doctor about any allergies you have.
  • Tell your doctor if you have had hearing loss or vertigo due to previous use of aminoglycoside drugs, or if you have myasthenia gravis . Aminoglycoside drugs should not be used in people with the condition.
  • Tell your doctor if you have kidney disease , hearing loss, vertigo , dizziness, or balance problems
  • Tell your doctor if your family has ever had hearing loss, such as deafness, ringing in the ears, or feeling full of ears, after taking aminoglycoside drugs.
  • Talk to your doctor about taking aminoglycoside medications if you are pregnant, may become pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breastfeeding.
  • Talk to your doctor first if you plan to give aminoglycoside drugs to the elderly.
  • Tell your doctor right away if you have an allergic reaction or overdose after taking an aminoglycoside drug.

Side Effects and Dangers of Aminoglycosides

Side effects that may arise due to the use of aminoglycoside drugs can be different for each person, depending on the type of aminoglycoside drug used. Some of the side effects that can appear include:

  • Dizzy
  • Headache
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Ears ringing
  • Muscles feel weak or tense

Check with your doctor if the side effects above don't go away or get worse. Stop using aminoglycoside drugs and see a doctor immediately if you have an allergic reaction to the drug, or more severe side effects, such as:

  • Kidney damage, which can be characterized by reduced urination or swelling in the legs
  • Hearing loss or hearing loss (deafness)
  • Paralysis
  • Peripheral nerve damage (peripheral neuropathy ), which can be characterized by tingling or numbness
  • Encephalopathy , which can be characterized by confusion, memory loss, changes in behavior, and difficulty thinking or focusing
  • Anemia
  • Symptoms of thrombocytopenia , such as easy bruising or bleeding
  • Balance disorders

Types and Trademarks of Aminoglycosides

The following are the types of aminoglycoside drugs that are equipped with several trademarks, as well as doses that are adjusted to the patient's condition and age:

1. Amikacin

Drug form: injection, infusion

Trademarks: Alostil, Amikacin, Amyosin, Glybotic, Mikaject, Mikasin, Verdix

To find out the dosage and more information about this drug, please visit the amikacin drug page .

2. Gentamicin

Drug form: cream, injection, eye drops, eye ointment, ointment

Trademarks: Dermabiotic, Diprogenta, Genoint, Genta, Gentacid, Gentamicin Sulfate, Gentalex, Gentason, Sagetam, Salgen

To find out the dosage and more information about this drug, please visit the gentamicin drug page .

3. Kanamycin

Drug form: capsule, injection

Trademarks: Kanamycin Capsules, Kanamycin Meiji, Kanamycin Sulfate

To find out the dosage and more information about this drug, please visit the kanamycin drug page .

4. Neomycin

Medicinal forms: eye drops, ear drops, ointments, eye ointments, creams, gels

Trademarks: Alletrol Compositum, Betason N, Bravoderm-N, Cendo Xitrol, Dexaton, Enbatic, Fluocort-N, Kalcinol N, Nebacetin, Otopain, Spectron, Viderma, Ximex Optixitrol

To find out the dosage and more information about this drug, please visit the neomycin drug page .

5. Paramomycin

Drug form: tablet, syrup

Trademark: Gabrryl

To find out the dosage and more information about this drug, please visit the paramomycin drug page .

6. Streptomycin

Drug form: injection

Trademarks: Meiji Streptomycin Sulphate, Streptomycin Sulphate

To find out the dosage and more information about this drug, please visit the Streptomycin Drugs page .

7. Tobramycin

Drug form: eye drops, eye ointment

Trademarks: Bralifex, Bralifex Plus, Bratocine, Tobro, Tobroson

To find out the dosage and more information about this drug, please visit the tobramycin drug page .

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