Antibiotics

Antibiotics

Antibiotics are a type of drug used to treat bacterial infections. Several types of antibiotics can also be used to prevent bacterial infections in certain conditions. Antibiotics cannot be used to treat viral infections, such as the flu.

Antibiotics work by inhibiting the growth, multiplication of bacteria, or killing bacterial cells. That way, bacterial infections can be overcome. The use of antibiotics should not be careless because it can increase the risk of developing resistance or immunity to antibiotics .

Antibiotics can also be given as a prevention of bacterial infection or prophylaxis. People who are given antibiotics for prophylaxis are generally people who are at high risk of developing a bacterial infection, for example patients who are undergoing glaucoma surgery or joint replacement surgery.

Warning Before Using Antibiotics

Follow the doctor 's recommendations and suggestions while undergoing treatment with antibiotics. Before using this drug, you need to pay attention to the following points:

  • Do not use antibiotics if you are allergic to these drugs. Tell your doctor about any history of allergies you have.
  • Tell your doctor about your medical history, especially if you have kidney disease, lupus , liver disease, porphyria , or have had a severe bacterial infection or sepsis.
  • Tell your doctor if you are taking certain medications, supplements or herbal products.
  • Consult your doctor if you plan to vaccinate while undergoing treatment with antibiotics. Some types of antibiotics can reduce the effectiveness of vaccinations, especially live vaccines.
  • Tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breastfeeding.
  • Immediately see a doctor if there is an allergic drug reaction or overdose after using antibiotics.

Side Effects and Dangers of Antibiotics

The side effects of using antibiotics can vary, depending on the type and dose of drug, as well as on the patient's body's response to the drug. However, some of the common side effects that may occur after using antibiotics are as follows:

  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Bloated
  • Diarrhea
  • Loss of appetite
  • Muscle or joint pain

Check with your doctor if the side effects you experience don't go away or get worse. In addition, there are more serious side effects due to the use of antibiotics, namely an increased risk of C. difficile infection which can be characterized by symptoms of severe diarrhea that does not go away or antibiotic resistance.

Immediately see a doctor if you experience these side effects or have an allergic reaction to drugs after using antibiotics.

Type, Trademark and Dosage of Antibiotics

Antibiotics should only be used based on a doctor's prescription. The following is an explanation and distribution of types of antibiotics:

1. Penicillin

Penicillin can be used to treat Streptococcal infections , meningitis, gonorrhea , pneumonia, or endocarditis . Some examples of drugs that belong to the penicillin class are:

Amoxicillin

Drug form: Tablets, caplets, dry syrup, capsules, and injections

Trademarks: Amobiotic, Amoxicillin Trihydrate, Amoxsan, Betamox, Erlamoxy, Etamox, Holimox, Hufanoxil, Omemox, Pehamoxil, Pritamox, Supramox, Topcillin

To find out the dosage and more information about this drug, please visit the amoxicillin drug page .

Ampicillin

Forms of medicine: Caplet, capsule, dry syrup, dry suspension and injection

Trademarks: Ambiopi, Ampicillin, Ampicillin Trihydrate, Binotal, Phapin, Sanpicillin, Viccillin

To find out the dosage and more information about this drug, please visit the ampicillin drug page .

Oxacillin

Drug form: Injectable

Trademark: -

To find out the dosage and further information about this drug, please open the oxacillin drug page .

Penicillin G

Drug form: Injectable

Trademarks: Benzathine Benzylpenicillin, Procaine Benzyl Penicillin, Procaine Penicillin G Meiji

To find out the dosage and further information about this drug, please open the penicillin G drug page .

Penicillin VK

Drug form: Tablets

Trademarks: Phenoxymethyl Penicillin Potassium, Phenoxymethyl Penicillin

To find out the dosage and further information about this drug, please open the VK penicillin drug page .

2. Cephalosporins

Some conditions that can be treated using cephalosporins are bone infections, otitis media , skin infections, and urinary tract infections. Examples of drugs that belong to the cephalosporin class are:

Cefadroxil

Forms of medicine: Capsules and dry syrup

Trademarks: Cefat, Droxal, Droxefa, Lapicef, Lostacef, Netfad, Renasistin, Roksicap, Staforin, Vocefa, Vocefa Forte, Yaricef

To find out the dosage and further information about this drug, please open the cefadroxil drug page .

Cefuroxime

Drug form: Tablets, caplets, and injections

Trademarks: Anbacim, Celocid, Cefuroxime Axetil, Cefuroxime Sodium, Oxtercid, Situroxime, Sharox, Zinnat

To find out the dosage and more information about this drug, please visit the cefuroxime drug page .

Cefixime

Drug form: Tablets, capsules, caplets, and dry syrup

Trademarks: Anfix, Cefacef, Cefarox, Cefixstar, Cefspan, Cerafix, Fixam, Fixatic, Helixim, Lanfix, Inbacef, Nixaven, Oracef, Profim, Simcef, Starcef, Tocef, Ximecef, Yafix

To find out the dosage and further information about this drug, please open the cefixime drug page .

Cefoperazone

Drug form: Injectable

Trademarks: Biorazon, Cefoperazone, Cepraz, Cerozon, Ferzobat, Logafox, Sulbacef, Sulpefion, Stabixin-1

To find out the dosage and more information about this drug, please visit the cefoperazone drug page .

Cefotaxim

Drug form: Injectable

Trademarks: Biocef, Cefotaxime, Cepofion, Clatax, Fobet, Goforan, Kalfoxim, Procefa, Simexim

To find out the dosage and further information about this drug, please open the cefotaxim drug page .

Cefepime

Drug form: Injectable

Trademarks: Cefepime HCL Monohydrate, Daryacef, Exepime, Fourcef, Interpim, Locepime, Maxicef, Procepim, Zepe

To find out the dosage and further information about this drug, please open the cefepime drug page .

3. Aminoglycosides

Aminoglycosides are a type of antibiotic commonly used to treat bacterial infections such as tuberculosis , joint infections, or peritonitis . Examples of drugs belonging to the aminoglycoside group are:

Paromomycin

Drug form: Tablet and syrup

Trademark: Gabriel

To find out the dosage and further information about this drug, please open the paromomycin drug page .

Tobramycin

Forms of medicine: Eye drops, eye ointment, inhalers and injections

Trademarks: Bralifex,Tobrex, Tobro

To find out the dosage and further information about this drug, please open the tobramycin drug page .

Gentamicin

Medicinal forms: Injections, eye drops, creams, and ointments

Trademarks: Bioderm, Betasin, Cendo Gentason, Garapon, Ikagen, Konigen, Sagestam, Salticin, Ximex Konigen

To find out the dosage and further information about this drug, please open the gentamicin drug page .

Amikacin

Drug form: Injectable

Trademarks: Alostil, Amikacin, Amiosin, Glybotic, Mikaject, Mikasin, Simikan, Verdix

To find out the dosage and more information about this drug, please visit the amikacin drug page .

Kanamycin

Forms of medicine: Capsules and injections

Trademarks: Kanamycin Capsules, Kanamycin Meiji, Kanamycin Sulfate

To find out the dosage and more information about this drug, please visit the kanamycin drug page .

Neomycin

Medication forms: Eye drops, ear drops, ointments, creams and gels

Trademarks: Celefa, Enbatic, Erladerm-N, Gentason-N, Liposin, Mycenta, nebacetin, Nelydex, Neosinol

To find out the dosage and more information about this drug, please visit the neomycin drug page

4. Tetracycline

Tetracyclines are used to treat several conditions, including syphilis, anthrax , periodontitis, brucellosis , and acne. Certain types of tetracycline cannot be used in children under 8 years of age. Examples of tetracyclines are:

Doxycycline

Drug form: Tablets and capsules

Trademarks: Dohixat, Doxicor, Doxycycline hyclate, Dumoxin, Interdoxin, Pushrob, Siclidon, Viadoxin

To find out the dosage and further information about this drug, please open the doxycycline drug page .

Minocycline

Forms of medicine: Capsules and injections

Trademarks: Nomika, Periocline

To find out the dosage and further information about this drug, please open the minocycline drug page .

Tetracycline HCl

Drug form: Capsules and ointment

Trademarks: Conmycin, Itracycline, Novabiotic, Novacycline, Samtetra, Super Tetra, Tetracycline HCL, Tetrasanbe, Trifacyclin, Unicyclin

To find out the dosage and further information about this drug, please open the tetracycline drug page .

Oxytetracycline

Drug form: Ointment, eye ointment, and injection

Trademarks: Oxytetracycline, Oxybiotic, Sancortmycin, Terra – Cortril, Terramycin

To find out the dosage and further information about this drug, please open the oxytetracycline drug page .

Tigecycline

Drug form: Injectable

Trademark: Tygacil

To find out the dosage and more information about this drug, please visit the tigecycline drug page .

5. Macrolides

Some conditions that can be treated using macrolide antibiotics are bronchitis, cervicitis , Lyme disease, pharyngitis , and sinusitis. Some types of macrolides cannot be used together with drugs such as cisapride . Types of macrolides include:

Erythromycin

Medicinal forms: Caplets, capsules, dry syrup, external liquids, creams, and gels

Trademarks: Dothrocyn, Duramycin, Erymed, Erythromycin, Trovilon

To find out the dosage and further information about this drug, please open the erythromycin drug page .

Azithromycin

Forms of medicine: Tablets, caplets, capsules, dry syrup, eye drops and injections.

Trademarks: Azithromycin Dihydrate, Infimycin, Zithromax IV, Zithrolan, Zistic, Mezatrin 500, Zithromax, Zitromed, Zibramax

To find out the dosage and more information about this drug, please visit the azithromycin drug page .

Clarithromycin

Forms of medication: Tablets, caplets, and dry syrup

Trademarks: Abbotic, Bicrolid 250, Bicrolid 500, Comtro, Clapharma, Clarithromycin, Hecobach 500, Orixal

To find out the dosage and more information about this drug, please visit the clarithromycin drug page .

6. Quinolones

Quinolones are used to treat anthrax , bone infections, cystitis , cervicitis, and skin infections. Examples of quinolones are:

Ciprofloxacin

Medication forms: Tablets, caplets, infusions, and eye drops

Trademarks: Baquinor Forte, Bernoflox, Bimaflox, Bufacipro, Ciflos, Cifloxan, Ciprofloxacin Hcl, Ciproxin, Cylowam, Interflox, Kifarox, Meflosin, Phaproxin, Quinobiotic, Tequinol

To find out the dosage and further information about this drug, please open the ciprofloxacin drug page .

Levofloxacin

Medication forms: Tablets, caplets, infusions, and eye drops

Trademarks: Cendo LFX, Cravit, Farlev, Levofloxacin, Levofloxacin hemihydrate, Lekuicin, Nislev, Prolecin, Simlev, Zidalev

To find out the dosage and more information about this drug, please visit the levofloxacin drug page .

Moxifloxacin

Medication forms: Tablets, caplets, infusions, and eye drops

Trademarks: Avelox, Floxaris, Garena, Infimox, Kabimox, MXN, Molcin, Moxivid, Moxibat, Moxifloxacin Hydrochloride, Respira, Vigamox, Zigat

To find out the dosage and further information about this drug, please open the moxifloxacin drug page .

Norfloxacin

Drug form: Film-coated caplet

Trademark: Pyrflox

To find out the dosage and more information about this drug, please visit the norfloxacin drug page .

7. Sulfa or Sulfonamide

Sulfa class of antibiotics can be used to treat various diseases caused by bacterial infections, such as urinary tract infections, bronchitis, bacterial meningitis, pneumonia, and eye or ear infections. Examples of sulfonamides are:

Sulfamethoxazole

Drug form: Tablet and syrup

Trademarks: Cotrimoxazole, Licoprima, Meprotrin Forte, Primadex, Primavon Forte, Celestrim, Sisoprim, Sultrimmix

To find out the dosage and further information about this drug, please open the sulfamethoxazole drug page .

8. Lincosamide

Lincosamide is used to treat several conditions caused by bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, bone and joint infections, acne, and vaginal infections (bacterial vaginosis). Examples of lincosamides are:

Clindamycin

Medication form: Capsules, ointment, gel

Trademarks: Clindamycin Hydrochloride, Clinex, Clinidac, Clinmas, Clinika, Dacin, Dalacin C, Lindacyn, Medi-Klin, Milorin, Probiotin, Prolic

To find out the dosage and more information about this drug, please visit the clindamycin drug page .

Lincomycin

Forms of medicine: Syrup and capsules

Trademarks: Biolincom, Linchopar, Lincocin, Lincor, Nolipo, Tamcocin, Tismamycin

To find out the dosage and more information about this drug, please visit the lincomycin drug page .

9. Glycopeptide

Glicopeptide is a type of antibiotic commonly used to treat skin infections, endocarditis , enterocolitis, pneumonia , and meningitis. Examples of drugs that belong to the glycopeptide class are:

Vancomycin

Drug form: Injectable

Trademarks: Vancodex, Vancomycin Hydrochloride, Vancep

To find out the dosage and further information about this drug, please open the vancomycin drug page .

Dalbavancin

Drug form: Injectable

Trademark: -

  • Condition: Skin infection

Adult: 1000 mg by infusion over 30 minutes. The dose for one week after is 500 mg.

Oritavancin

Drug form: Injectable

Trademark: -

  • Condition: Skin infection

Adult: 1200 mg by infusion over 3 hours, as a single dose.

Telavancin

Drug form: Injectable

Trademark: -

  • Condition: Skin infection

Adult: 10 mg/kg by infusion over 60 minutes every 24 hours, for 7–14 days.

  • Condition: Pneumonia

Adult: 10 mg/kg by infusion over 60 minutes every 24 hours, for 7–21 days.

10. Carbapenem

Carbapenem class of antibiotics can be used to treat various diseases caused by bacterial infections, such as pneumonia, bone infections, and kidney infections. Examples of drugs belonging to the carbapenem group are:

Meropenem

Drug form: Injectable

Trademarks: Granem, Meropenem Trihydrate, Merofen, Merokaf, Meroxi

To find out the dosage and more information about this drug, please visit the meropenem drug page .

Ertapenem

Drug form: Injectable

Trademark: Invanz

To find out the dosage and more information about this drug, please visit the ertapenem drug page .

Imipenem-Cilastatin

Drug form: Injectable

Trademarks: Fiocilas, Imiclast, Imipex, Pelascap, Pelastin, Tienam, Timipen, Xerxes IV

To find out the dosage and further information about this drug, please open the imipenem-cilastatin drug page .

Doripenem

Drug form: Injectable

Trademarks: Bizan, Daryaven, Dorbaz, Doripenem, Doripex, DRM, Novedor, Ribacter, Tironem

To find out the dosage and more information about this drug, please visit the doripenem drug page .

Biapenem

Drug form: Injectable

Trademark: -

To find out the dosage and more information about this drug, please visit the biapenem drug page .

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