Anticonvulsant

Anticonvulsant

Anticonvulsants or antiseizures are drugs to prevent and treat seizures , for example in epilepsy. In Indonesia, anticonvulsants are available in the form of oral medication, injections, and enemas. This medicine should only be used according to a doctor's prescription .

Under normal circumstances, nerve cells in the brain communicate with each other through electrical signals. When there is excessive electrical activity in the brain, seizures can occur. Anticonvulsant drugs work by normalizing excessive electrical activity in the brain so that seizures can be prevented or treated.

Besides being useful for treating seizures, several types of anticonvulsants can also be used to relieve pain due to nervous disorders ( neuropathy ), prevent and treat headaches , and treat bipolar disorder .

Warning Before Taking Anticonvulsants

Anticonvulsants should only be used as prescribed by a doctor . Before using anticonvulsants, there are a number of things you should pay attention to, namely:

  • Do not use anticonvulsant drugs if you are allergic to these drugs.
  • Avoid consuming alcoholic beverages while taking anticonvulsant drugs, as they can worsen side effects.
  • Tell your doctor if you are pregnant, may become pregnant, or are breastfeeding.
  • Consult your doctor about the most effective contraceptive method during treatment with this drug. Consult your doctor immediately if you become pregnant unexpectedly, or want to plan a pregnancy while taking anticonvulsants.
  • Do not drive a vehicle or do activities that require alertness while taking anticonvulsant drugs, because these drugs can cause dizziness.
  • Tell your doctor about your medical history, especially liver disease, kidney disease, diabetes , heart disease, glaucoma , or a respiratory disorder, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD ) or asthma.
  • Tell your doctor if you have ever had or are suffering from drug abuse , mood disorders, suicidal thoughts , or self-harm, or a mental illness, such as depression or psychosis .
  • Do not change doses, change types of drugs, and start or stop taking anticonvulsant drugs without consulting a doctor first. This can cause seizures to reappear or get worse.
  • Tell your doctor if you are taking certain drugs, supplements or herbal products, to anticipate the effects of drug interactions.
  • Tell your doctor that you are taking anticonvulsants if you are having a certain medical procedure, such as dental work or surgery.
  • While undergoing treatment with anticonvulsants, check with your doctor regularly. Several types of anticonvulsant drugs can cause dependence so they should not be used in the long term.
  • Consult a doctor if you have repeated seizures or your condition does not improve. The doctor may evaluate the dosage and type of drug used.
  • Immediately consult a doctor if you experience a drug allergic reaction or disturbing side effects after using anticonvulsant drugs.

Side Effects and Dangers of Anticonvulsants

Anticonvulsants can cause different side effects for each user. Some of the side effects that often appear are:

  • Impaired vision
  • Coordination disorders
  • Drowsiness
  • Nauseous
  • Vomit
  • Dizzy
  • Headache
  • Weak or tired
  • Tremors
  • Weight gain
  • Hair loss
  • Difficulty concentrating or thinking

Check with your doctor if these side effects don't go away or get worse. Immediately see a doctor if you experience an allergic drug reaction or serious side effects, including:

  • Significant changes in mood or behavior
  • Liver damage
  • Hearing disorders
  • Acute pancreatitis
  • Bleeding or easy bruising
  • Decreased kidney function, which can be characterized by changes in the number of urinations per day
  • Kidney stones , which can be characterized by low back pain and bloody urine
  • Skin rash, which can be an early sign of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome

In addition, long-term use of anticonvulsants can also cause side effects, such as bone loss ( osteoporosis ), swollen ankles, or menstrual cycle disturbances. Consult a doctor if you experience these side effects.

Type, Trademark and Dosage of Anticonvulsants

The following are the types, trademarks, and dosages of drugs that are included in the anticonvulsant class:

1. Barbiturates

Barbiturates prevent seizures by increasing the activity of gamma - aminobutyric acid (GABA), a chemical in the brain that has a sedative or sedative effect. Barbiturates are used to treat all types of seizures, except absence seizures . Examples of barbiturate drugs are:

Phenobarbital

Drug form: tablet, injection

Phenobarbital trademarks: Phenobarbital Sodium, Phenobarbital, Sibital

To find out the dosage and further information about this drug, please open the phenobarbital drug page .

2. Benzodiazepines

Like phenobarbital, benzodiazepines work by increasing GABA activity. However, benzodiazepines have a wider working effect. Therefore, apart from preventing seizures, benzodiazepines can also be used to treat anxiety. Examples of benzodiazepine drugs include:

Diazepam

Forms of medicine: tablets, caplets, syrup, injections, enemas

Diazepam trademarks: Analsik, Diazepam, Metaneuron, Neurodial, Nozepav, Opineuron, Proneuron, Stesolid, Valdimex, Valisanbe, Valium

To find out the dosage and more information about this drug, please visit the diazepam drug page .

Clonazepam

Drug form: Tablets

Clonazepam trademarks: Clonazepam, Riklon 2

To find out the dosage and more information about this drug, please visit the clonazepam drug page .

Lorazepam

Drug form: tablet

Lorazepam trademarks: Ativan, Lorazepam, Loxipaz, Merlopam, Renaquil

To find out the dosage and further information about this drug, please open the lorazepam drug page .

Clobazam

Drug form: tablet

Clobazam trademarks: Anxibloc, Asabium, Clobazam, Clofritis, Frisium, Proclozam

To find out the dosage and more information about this drug, please visit the clobazam drug page .

3. Dibenzazepine

Dibenzapine works by increasing GABA activity and inhibiting the flow of electrical impulses in nerve cells. That way, the excessive electrical activity in the brain that causes seizures can decrease. Examples of dibenzazepine drugs are:

Carbamazepine

Drug form: tablet

Carbamazepine trademarks: Bamgetol, Carbamazepine, Tegretol CR, Tegretol

For dosages and more information about this drug, please visit the carbamazepine drug page .

Oxcarbazepine

Drug form: tablet, caplet, suspension

Oxcarbazepine trademarks: Barzepin, Prolepsy, Trileptal

To find out the dosage and more information about this drug, please visit the oxcarbazepine drug page .

Rufinamide

Drug form: tablet

Rufinamide trademark: Inovelon

To find out the dosage and more information about this drug, please visit the rufinamide drug page .

4. Hydantoin

Hydantoin stops seizures by inhibiting repeated stimulation of nerve cells that cause seizures. Examples of hydantoin drugs are:

Phenytoin

Drug form: capsule, injection

Phenytoin trademarks: Decatona, Dextoin, Dilantin, Ikaphen, Kutoin, Phenytoin Sodium, Sanbetoin

To find out the dosage and further information about this drug, please open the phenytoin drug page .

5. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor

This drug prevents seizures by inhibiting the enzyme carbonic anhydrase, which is an enzyme that affects the water and electrolyte levels in the body. Examples of carbonic anhydrase inhibitor drugs are:

Acetazolamide

Drug form: tablet

Acetazolamide trademarks: Cendo Glaucon, Glauseta

To find out the dosage and further information about this drug, please open the acetazolamide drug page .

Topiramate

Drug form: tablet, capsule

Topiramate trademarks: Epilep, Migratop, Topamax

To find out the dosage and more information about this drug, please visit the topiramate drug page.

Zonisamide

Drug form: tablet

Zonisamide trademark: Zonegran

To find out the dosage and more information about this drug, please visit the zonisamide drug page .

6. Fatty acid derivatives

This drug treats seizures by inhibiting the enzyme that degrades gamma - aminobutyric acid (GABA) so that GABA levels in the brain increase. In addition, this drug can also reduce brain electrical activity by inhibiting electrolytes that play a role in the delivery of electrical impulses. Examples of fatty acid derivative drugs are:

Valproic acid

Drug form: syrup

Valproic acid trademarks: Berval, Epilepsan, Ikalep, Phalsy, Sodium Valproate, Valepsi, Valeptik, Valkene, Valproic Acid

To find out the dosage and more information about this drug, please visit the valproic acid drug page .

Divalproex

Drug form: tablet, caplet

Divalproex trademarks: Depakote, Divalpi EC, Divalproex Sodium, Epilepsan, Falpro, Forlepsy ER, Ikalep, Velpraz

To find out the dosage and further information about this drug, please open the divalproex drug page .

7. Analog of gamma acid - aminobutyric

This drug works by increasing the response of nerve cells in the brain to GABA and increasing GABA production so that excessive electrical activity can be suppressed. Examples of gamma - aminobutyric acid analog drugs are:

Gapapentin

Drug form: capsules

Gabapentin trademarks: Alpentin, Epiven, Gabapentin, Gabesci, Ganin, Neurontin, Neurosantin, Simtin, Cypentin, Tineruron

To find out the dosage and further information about this drug, please open the gabapentin drug page .

Pregabalin

Drug form: capsules

Pregabalin trademarks: Gabatrop, Gamalix, Lyrigad, Nulyn, Opibalin, Pregabalin, Pregamep, Prelin, Progalin, Provelyn

To find out the dosage and further information about this drug, please open the pregabalin drug page .

8. Pyrrolidine

Pyrrolidine works to treat epilepsy by slowing the flow of electricity between the nerves. Usually, drugs in this class are used as adjunctive therapy. Examples of pyrrolidine drugs are:

Levetiracetam

Drug form: tablet, caplet

Levetiracetam trademarks: Antilep, Epilev XR, Kepra, Lepsy, Lethira, Levetiracetam, Levexa

To find out the dosage and further information about this drug, please open the levetiracetam drug page .

9. Triazine

Triazine works by inhibiting the release of neurotransmitters that increase brain activity, such as glutamate and aspartate. Examples of these drugs are:

Lamotrigine

Drug form: tablet

Lamotigrine trademarks: Lamictal, Lamiros

To find out the dosage and further information about this drug, please open the lamotrigine drug page .

10. AMPA receptor antagonist

In treating seizures, AMPA receptor antagonists inhibit glutamate activity which can stimulate excessive electrical activity in the brain. Examples of AMPA receptor antagonist drugs are:

Perampanel

Drug form: tablet

Perampanel trademark: Fycompa

To find out the dosage and more information about this drug, please visit the perampanel drug page .

1 1 . Other anticonvulsant drugs

In addition to the types of drugs above, there are also other types of anticonvulsant drugs, namely:

magnesium sulfate

Drug form: injection

Trademark magnesium sulfate: Otsu MgSO4

To find out the dosage and further information about this drug, please open the magnesium sulfate drug page .

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