The BCG or Bacillus Calmette–Guérin vaccine is a vaccine to prevent tuberculosis or tuberculosis. TB is caused by infection with the bacterium mycobacterium tuberculosis . The BCG vaccine is a type of vaccination that must be given to children.
The BCG vaccine is derived from attenuated mycobacterium tuberculosis . This BCG vaccine injection will help the body recognize and form immunity against this bacteria. In addition to preventing tuberculosis, the BCG vaccine can also be used as immunotherapy for bladder cancer .
BCG vaccine trademarks: BCG Vaccine, BCG Vaccine SSI, Dry BCG Vaccine
What is the BCG Vaccine
|Used by||Adults and children|
|BCG vaccine for pregnant and lactating women||Category C: Studies in animal studies have shown an adverse effect on the fetus, but there have been no controlled studies in pregnant women. The drug should only be used if the expected benefit outweighs the risk to the fetus. It is not known whether the BCG vaccine is absorbed into breast milk or not . Consult with your doctor before using this medicine.|
Warning Before Undergoing BCG ASI Vaccine
The BCG vaccine will be given by a doctor or medical officer at a health facility. Pay attention to the following things before getting vaccinated with the BCG vaccine:
- Tell your doctor about any history of allergies you have. The BCG vaccine should not be given to people who are allergic to this vaccine or any of the ingredients in the vaccine product.
- Tell your doctor if you have a weakened immune system due to HIV and AIDS , leukemia, lymphoma , or cancer
- Tell your doctor if you or someone who lives in your household has tuberculosis or is undergoing treatment with anti-tuberculosis drugs.
- Tell your doctor if you are having radiotherapy or chemotherapy , or have recently received an organ transplant.
- Tell your doctor if you are using supplements, herbal products, or medications, including antibiotics or corticosteroids .
- Tell your doctor if you are pregnant, breastfeeding or planning a pregnancy.
- Immediately see a doctor if you have an allergic drug reaction , serious side effects, or an overdose after using the BCG vaccine.
BCG Vaccine Dosage and Schedule
The BCG vaccine is a type of vaccination that must be given to children. In accordance with the immunization schedule issued by IDAI (Indonesian Pediatrician Association), the BCG vaccine injection schedule can be done from newborn to 1 month old.
For tuberculosis endemic areas, babies who have not received the BCG vaccination after 3 months of age are advised to have a tuberculin test first.
The dosage prescribed by the doctor will be adjusted to the age and condition of the patient, as well as the intended use of the drug. The following details the general dosage of the BCG vaccine:
Purpose: Prevent tuberculosis
- Adult: 0.2–0.3 ml given by injection into the skin.
- Children aged > 1 month: 0.2–0.3 ml of the drug mixed with 1 ml of sterile water which is then injected into the skin.
- Children aged <1 month: 0.2–0.3 ml of drug mixed with 2 ml of sterile liquid which is then injected into the skin.
Purpose: As an immunotherapy for bladder cancer
- Adult: Administration can be done within 7–14 days after the biopsy results are out. The drug will be inserted into the bladder through a urinary catheter. The award will be done per cycle.
How to give the BCG vaccine
The BCG vaccine will be given by a doctor or medical officer under the supervision of a doctor. The method of administration is by injection in the upper arm. As an immunotherapy for bladder cancer, the vaccine will be inserted into the bladder through a catheter.
Make sure you cover the area where the BCG vaccine was injected with gauze for at least 24 hours after being vaccinated. After 2–3 months since the BCG vaccine, your doctor may order you to have a Mantoux test . This test is done to check whether the BCG vaccine is effective or not.
BCG Vaccine Interaction with Other Drugs
Inter-drug interaction effects can occur if the BCG vaccine is used with certain drugs, for example:
- Increased risk of infection when used with immunosuppressive drugs, such as corticosteroids or ciclosporin
- Decreased therapeutic effect of BCG vaccine when used with immunoglobulins, such as cytomegalovirus immune globulin (CMV IG) or hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG).
- Decreased effectiveness of the BCG vaccine when used with antibiotics, such as ciprofloxacin or gentamicin
BCG Vaccine Side Effects and Dangers
The BCG vaccine is safe and rarely causes harmful side effects. Common side effects are pain at the injection site, ulcers at the injection site , and skin that looks dry or scaly. Check with your doctor if these side effects do not subside.
You should also see a doctor immediately if you have an allergic drug reaction or more serious side effects, such as:
- Pus, ulcers, or abscesses appear at the injection site
- The injection site is still swollen after 2–3 days
- Swollen lymph nodes
- High fever (temperature ≥39° Celsius)
- No appetite
- Weight loss
- Pain to the bone
- The body feels very tired