Brain cancer

Brain cancer

Brain cancer is cancer that occurs when cells in brain tissue grow abnormally and uncontrollably and form a mass (tumor). The tumor takes up space, blood, and nutrients from healthy cells in and around brain tissue.

The brain is a very important and complex organ. This organ functions to control all body functions, from movement functions, metabolic functions, to thoughts and feelings. If abnormal cells grow in the brain, body functions can be impaired.

Based on its origin, brain cancer can be divided into two, namely primary and secondary brain cancer. Primary brain cancer originates from the brain cells themselves, while secondary brain cancer (metastasis) originates from cancer cells that spread from other organs of the body.

According to WHO data in 2020, new cases of brain cancer in Indonesia reached 1.5% of all existing cancer cases. Meanwhile, the death rate for brain cancer is 2.3% of all sufferers.

Types of Brain Cancer

The growth of abnormal cells or tumors in the brain can be benign or even malignant. Brain cancer is classified as abnormal cells that grow malignant so that it can grow and spread quickly.

Based on its origin, brain cancer can be divided into two, namely:

Primary brain cancer

Primary brain cancer is brain cancer that originates in cells in the brain tissue itself. Some types of primary brain cancer include:

  • Astrocytoma
    Astrocytoma is a type of brain cancer that grows and develops in glial cells, which are cells that support the nervous system. Astrocytoma is the most common type of primary brain cancer and can occur in children or the elderly.
  • Glioblastoma multiforme
    Glioblastoma is the most malignant type of glial cell brain cancer. GBM can grow and spread very quickly. This type of brain cancer most often affects the 50-70 year age group and is more common in men than women.
  • Medulloblastomas
    Medulloblastomas are a type of glial cell brain cancer that grows and develops in the cerebellum , the organ that controls movement. This type generally occurs in children and adolescents.

Secondary brain cancer

In contrast to primary brain cancer, secondary brain cancer originates from cancer cells that spread (metastasize) from other organs of the body. The most common types of cancer that spread to the brain are:

  • Lung cancer
  • Breast cancer
  • Skin cancer
  • Colon cancer
  • Kidney cancer
  • Thyroid cancer d

Causes and Symptoms of Brain Cancer

Brain cancer occurs when cells in the brain grow abnormally. The cause is not known for certain, but there are a number of factors that can increase a person's risk of developing brain cancer, such as radiation exposure to the head, a family history of brain cancer, and genetic disorders.

Symptoms of brain cancer can develop gradually and worsen over time. Symptoms also vary widely, from headaches to hallucinations and personality changes.

The above symptoms can appear due to increased pressure inside the head or damage to the part of the brain where the cancer grows.

How to treat and prevent brain cancer

Brain cancer can be treated by several methods, the type of which is adjusted to the patient's health condition, as well as the location, size, and type of tumor. Treatment methods that can be done include:

  • Surgery, such as a craniotomy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiotherapy
  • Target therapy

Although it cannot be prevented, the risk of brain cancer can be reduced by doing several things, such as avoiding excessive radiation exposure, not smoking, and avoiding chemicals that can cause cancer cell growth.

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