Breast cancer is cancer that forms in breast tissue. Breast cancer occurs when cells in the breast tissue grow uncontrollably and take over the healthy and surrounding breast tissue.
Breast cancer can form in the glands that produce milk (lobules) or in the ducts (ducts) that carry milk from the glands to the nipple. Cancer can also form in the fatty tissue or connective tissue within the breast. Although more common in women, breast cancer can also affect men.
Types of Breast Cancer
Breast cancer is divided into many types, the four most common are:
1. Ductal carcinoma in situ
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) grows in the milk ducts but does not spread to surrounding tissues. DCIS is an early stage cancer that is easy to treat. However, DCIS can spread to surrounding tissues if not treated immediately.
2. Lobular carcinoma in situ
Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is cancer that grows in the milk-producing glands. Like ductal carcinoma in situ, this type of cancer does not spread to surrounding tissues. However, LCIS in one breast can increase the risk of developing cancer in both breasts.
3. Invasive ductal carcinoma
Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) grows in the ducts and can spread to surrounding tissues, and can even spread to other areas of the body. IDC occurs in 70–80% of breast cancer cases.
4. Invasive lobular carcinoma
Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) is cancer that initially grows in the mammary glands, but then spreads to surrounding tissues. This type of cancer can also spread through the blood and lymph channels to other parts of the body. ILC occurs in 10% of breast cancer cases.
In addition to the types of breast cancer above, there are also several types of breast cancer that are rare, namely:
- Angiosarcoma, which is a type of cancer that grows in the blood vessels and lymph channels in the breast
- Paget's disease, which is cancer that grows on the nipple of the breast, then spreads to the black area around the nipple (areola)
- Phyllodes tumor , which is a type of cancer that grows in the connective tissue of the breast
- Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC), which is a type of breast cancer that can grow quickly and clog the lymph channels, causing the breast to become inflamed, red, and swollen like an infection
- Triple negative breast cancer , which is a type of breast cancer that is difficult to treat because it does not show the presence of estrogen hormone receptors (ER), progesterone hormone receptors (PR), and HER-2 protein receptors on cancer tissue examination
Symptoms and Causes of Breast Cancer
Breast cancer is often difficult to detect in its early stages because of its small size. New lumps can be palpated if they are large enough. However, not all lumps in the breast mean cancer. Therefore, it is important to do an examination to determine whether the lump is cancerous or not.
It is not known what causes cancer cells to grow in the breast. However, there are a number of factors that can put a person at risk for this disease, including being overweight, having periods too young, and having a smoking habit.
How to treat and prevent breast cancer
Breast cancer can be treated in several ways, depending on the patient's condition and the type of breast cancer itself. Treatment efforts include:
- Radiation therapy
- Hormone therapy
- Surgical procedure
Breast cancer prevention can be done with breast self-examination or examination by medical personnel. Checks should be done regularly if you are at risk of developing breast cancer. In addition, it is recommended to exercise regularly and not consume alcoholic beverages.