Bronchodilators

Bronchodilators

Bronchodilators are a group of drugs used to relieve symptoms due to narrowing of the airways, such as coughing, wheezing or shortness of breath. Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are two conditions that are often treated with bronchodilators.

Bronchodilators work by widening the bronchi (breathing passages) and relaxing the muscles in the respiratory tract, so that air flow to and from the lungs can be smoother.

Bronchodilators are divided into several types, namely beta-2 agonists, anticholinergics, and xanthine or methylxanthine derivatives. Beta-2 agonists can be divided into fast acting ( short acting beta agonist/ SABA ), slow acting ( long acting beta agonist /LABA), and very slow acting ( ultra long acting beta agonist /ultra LABA).

Rapid-acting beta-2 agonists may be used to treat an asthma attack or sudden narrowing of the airways. Meanwhile, slow-reacting beta-2 agonists can be used to prevent or reduce the frequency of asthma relapses.

Precautions Before Using Bronchodilators

Follow the doctor's recommendations and suggestions while undergoing treatment with bronchodilators. Before using this drug, you need to pay attention to the following points:

  • Tell your doctor about any history of allergies you have. Bronchodilators should not be used by patients who are allergic to this drug.
  • Tell your doctor if you have or are currently suffering from  hyperthyroidism , heart and blood vessel disease,  diabetes , hypertension, arrhythmia , enlarged prostate gland ( benign prostate hyperplasia ), glaucoma, urinary tract obstruction, liver disease , epilepsy, or peptic ulcers  .
  • Tell your doctor if you are taking certain medications, supplements, or herbal products.
  • Tell your doctor if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breastfeeding.
  • Immediately see a doctor if there is an allergic drug reaction or an overdose after using a bronchodilator.

Side Effects and Dangers of Bronchodilators

Some of the side effects that can occur after using bronchodilators are:

  • Shaking, especially in the hands
  • Muscle cramp
  • Headache
  • Heart palpitations (palpitations)
  • Diarrhea or constipation
  • Dry mouth
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Cough
  • Arrhythmia
  • Sore throat
  • Difficulty urinating
  • Insomnia

Check with your doctor if you experience any of the side effects mentioned above. Call your doctor right away if you have an allergic reaction to any medication after using a bronchodilator.

Types, Trademarks, and Dosages of Bronchodilators

Bronchodilators should only be used under a doctor's prescription. The following is an explanation of the distribution of types of drugs and doses of bronchodilators:

1. Anticholinergic

This drug works by blocking the effect of acetylcholine on the muscles of the respiratory tract so that the muscles relax and the respiratory tract can widen. Acetylcholine is a chemical that nerves use to communicate with muscle cells. Examples of anticholigenic bronchodilators are:

Ipratropium

Drug form: Inhaler

Trademarks: Atrovent, Farbivent, Ipratropium Bromide, Midatro, Respivent

Condition: Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

  • Adults: 20–40 mcg, 3-4 times daily. If needed, can be increased to 80 mcg in a single use. The dose for use in a nebuliser is 250–500 mcg, 3–4 times daily
  • Children < 6 years: 20 mcg, 3 times daily.
  • Children 6–12 years: 20–40 mcg 3 times daily.

Tiotropium

Drug form: Inhaler

Tiotropium trademarks : Spiolto Respimat, Spiriva, Spiriva Respimat

Condition: Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

  • Adults: The dosage as a powder inhaler is 18 mcg per day via the inhaler. Dosage as an inhalation liquid is 5 mcg per day.

Aclidinium

Drug form: Inhaler

Aclidinium trademark : Eklira Genuair

Condition: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

  • Adult: 400 mcg, 2 times a day.

Glycopyrronium

Drug form: Inhaler

Trademarks: Seebri Breezhaler, Ultibro Breezhaler

Condition: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

  • Adults: 50 mcg, once daily.

2. Beta-2 . agonists

This drug works by activating beta-2 receptor cells, which can cause the muscles in the respiratory tract to relax, thereby opening the airways. Examples of beta-2 agonist bronchodilators are:

Salbutamol

Drug form: Inhaler, tablet, syrup, injection.

Trademarks: Astharol, Azmacon, Fartolin, Glisend, Salbuven, Suprasma, Velutine

To find out the dosage and more information about this drug, please visit the salbutamol drug page .

Terbutaline

Drug forms: Tablets, caplets, syrups, inhalers, respules , and injections

Trademarks: Astherin, Bricasma, Forasma, Lasmalin, Molasma, Nairet, Neosma

To find out the dosage and further information about this drug, please open the terbutaline drug page .

Formoterol

Drug form: Inhaler

Trademarks: Innovair, Symbicort

Condition: Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

  • Adult: 12 mcg, 2 times daily, maximum dose 48 mcg per day or 24 mcg per inhalation.

Olodaterol

Drug form: Inhaler

Trademarks: Infortispir Respimat, Spiolto Respimat, Striverdi Respimat

Condition: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

  • Adults: Dosage for inhalers containing 2.5 mcg per use, used 2 inhalations, once a day.

Salmeterol

Drug form: Inhaler

Trademarks: Flutias, Respitide, Salmeflo, Seretide Discus

To find out the dosage and further information about this drug, please open the salmeterol drug page .

Indacaterol

Drug form: Inhaler

Trademarks: Onbrez Breezhaler, Ultibro Breezhaler

Condition: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

  • Adults: 150 mcg, once daily. The maximum dose is 300 mg, once a day.

Procaterol

Drug form: Inhaler, tablet and syrup

Trademarks: Asterol, Ataroc, Meptin, Sesma

To find out the dosage and further information about this drug, please open the procaterol drug page .

3. Methylxanthine

The mechanism of action of methylxanthine is not fully understood, but research shows that this drug can inhibit the enzyme phosphodiesterase. This method can increase the concentration of chemicals that widen the airways. Examples of methylxanthine bronchodilators are:

Theophylline

Forms of medicine: Tablets, syrup, caplets, capsules

Trademarks: Asthma Soho, Bufabron, Kontrasma, Luvisma, Neo Napacin

To find out the dosage and further information about this drug, please open the theophylline drug page .

Aminophylline

Drug form: Tablet and injection

Trademarks: Aminophylline, Decafil, Erphafillin, Phaminov

To find out the dosage and more information about this drug, please visit the aminophylline drug page .

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