Cephalosporins

Cephalosporins

Cephalosporins are a group of antibiotics to treat diseases caused by bacterial infections, ranging from strep throat, pneumonia, to bone infections. Cephalosporins are available in various drug dosage forms, including tablets, capsules, dry syrup, and injections.

Cephalosporins are beta-lactam antibiotics. Cephalosporins work by blocking the cell wall formation process and activating autolytic enzymes to destroy the bacterial cell wall. In this way, cephalosporin antibiotics can kill bacteria.

Apart from strep throat, pneumonia, and bone infections, other conditions that can also be treated with cephalosporins are:

  • Ear infections, such as otitis media
  • Urinary tract and kidney infections
  • Skin and soft tissue infections, such as cellulitis and abscesses
  • Bile tract and digestive tract infections
  • Endocarditis
  • Sinusitis
  • Sepsis
  • Meningitis
  • Lyme disease
  • Sexually transmitted infections , such as gonorrhea

Precautions Before Using Cephalosporins

There are several things that need to be considered before using cephalosporin antibiotics, including:

  • Do not use cephalosporin drugs if you have an allergy to these drugs, or antibiotic drugs. Always tell your doctor about any history of allergies you have.
  • Tell your doctor if you have or have ever had kidney disease, liver disease , stomach disorders, or porphyria .
  • Talk to your doctor about using cephalosporins if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breastfeeding.
  • Tell your doctor if you are using birth control pills to prevent pregnancy, because cephalosporin class drugs can reduce the effectiveness of birth control pills.
  • Do not consume alcoholic beverages while on treatment with cephalosporins. Tell your doctor if you have or have ever had an addiction to alcohol.
  • Tell the doctor if you or your child are planning or have recently had a live vaccine, such as the typhoid vaccine or the BCG vaccine .
  • Tell your doctor that you are taking a cephalosporin before having any medical procedure. The use of cephalosporins has the potential to cause false positive results on a diabetes urine test.
  • Tell your doctor if you are currently taking warfarin or any other medications, including supplements and herbal products, to avoid drug interactions.
  • Immediately consult a doctor if you have an allergic drug reaction or serious side effects after using cephalosporins.

Side Effects and Dangers of Cephalosporins

Some of the side effects that may arise from using cephalosporins are:

  • Nauseous
  • Vomit
  • Sprue
  • Dizzy
  • Stomach ache
  • Diarrhea
  • Fungal infections , especially on long-term use

Check with your doctor if the side effects above don't go away or get worse. Stop using cephalosporins and see a doctor immediately if you have an allergic reaction to the drug or serious side effects, such as:

  • Bloody diarrhea accompanied by fever or severe abdominal pain
  • Sore throat that doesn't go away
  • Jaundice
  • Easy bruising and bleeding
  • Urinate infrequently or sparingly
  • seizures

Types and Trademarks of Cephalosporins

Cephalosporins consist of 5 generations. The following are types of cephalosporin drugs divided by generation:

1. First generation cephalosporin

First-generation cephalosporins are effective in treating infections with gram-positive and a small number of gram-negative bacteria. Some types of bacteria that can be treated by this drug are Staphylococcus and Streptococcus . Examples of first-generation cephalosporins are:

Cefadroxil

Forms of medicine: capsules, tablets, dry syrup

Trademarks: Ancefa, Artocef, Bidicef, Cefdrox, Cefadroxil Monohydrate, Erphadrox, Doxef, Gencef, Librocef, Maxcef, Opicef, Pharmaxil, Pyricef Forte, Renasistin OD, Staforin, Vroxil, Widoxil, Yaricef

To find out the dosage and further information about this drug, please open the cefadroxil drug page .

Cephalexin

Forms of medicine: capsules, dry syrup

Trademarks: Cefabiotic, Cefalexin Monohydrate, Cephalexin, Madlexin

To find out the dosage and further information about this drug, please open the cephalexin drug page .

Cefazolin

Drug form: injection

Trademarks: Cefazol, Cefazolin Sodium

To find out the dosage and further information about this drug, please open the cefazolin drug page .

2. Second generation cephalosporins

Second generation cephalosporins are more effective in treating gram-negative bacterial infections, but can overcome some gram-negative bacteria. Examples of second generation cephalosporins are:

Cefuroxime

Drug forms: tablets and injections

Merek dagang: Anbacim, Celocid, Cefuroxime Axetil, Cefuroxime Sodium, Oxtercid, Sharox, Situroxime, Zinnat

To find out the dosage and further information about this drug, please open the cefuroxime drug page .

Cefprozil

Forms of medicine: tablets, dry syrup

Trademark: Lizor

To find out the dosage and further information about this drug, please open the cefprozil drug page .

Cefaclor

Forms of medicine: tablets, capsules, dry syrup

Trademarks: Capabiotic, Cloracef, Forifek, Medikoncef

To find out the dosage and further information about this drug, please open the cefachlor drug page .

3. Third generation cephalosporins

Third-generation cephalosporins are effective in treating gram-positive and negative bacterial infections. Drugs in this class are also used to treat bacteria that are already resistant to previous generations of cephalosporins.

Several types of bacteria that can be treated by this drug are Haemophilus influenzae, E. coli , Klebsiella pneumoniae , and Proteus mirabilis . Examples of third-generation cephalosporins include:

Cefdinir

Drug form: capsules

Trademark: Nircef

To find out the dosage and further information about this drug, please open the cefdinir drug page .

Cefotaxime

Drug form: injection

Trademarks: Biocef, Cefotaxime, Clacor, Clacef, Cefarin, Efotax, Goforan, Kalfoxim, Litaxim, Procefa, Rycef, Siclaxim, Taxef, Taxegram, Timox

To find out the dosage and further information about this drug, please open the cefotaxim drug page .

Cefixime

Forms of medicine: tablets, capsules, dry syrup

Trademarks: Befixim, Cefixime, Cefspan, Ceptik, Helixim, Inbacef, Nixaven, Oracef, Pharmafix, Sporetik, Starcef

To find out the dosage and further information about this drug, please open the cefixime drug page .

Ceftriaxone

Drug form: injection

Trademarks: Betrix, Bioxon, Broadced, Ceftriaxone, Cefaxon, Ceftrox, Cephaflox, Ecotrixon, Futaxon, Incephin, Intrix, Terfacef, Tricefin, Trixon, Tyason

To find out the dosage and further information about this drug, please open the ceftriaxone drug page .

Cefoperazone

Drug form: injection

Trademarks: Baxcef, Biorazon, Cefobactam, Cefophar, Cefratam, Ceropid, Ferotam, Fosular, Inzion, Logafox, Quabacef, Simextam, Sulperazon, Zotam

To find out the dosage and further information about this drug, please open the cefoperazone drug page .

Ceftazidime

Drug form: injection

Trademarks: Biozim, Ceftazidime Pentahydrate, Ceftamax, Ceftum, Cetazum, Extimon, Fortum, Lacedim, Pharodime, Quazidim, Zibac, Zidifec

To find out the dosage and further information about this drug, please open the ceftazidime drug page .

The Cefditor

Drug form: tablets, granules

Trademarks: Cefditoren Pivoxil, Meiact, Tafoxil

To find out the dosage and further information about this drug, please open the cefditoren drug page .

4. Cephalosporin IV generation

IV generation cephalosporins are similar to III cephalosporins, but more effective. This drug is usually prescribed to treat bacterial infections that are quite severe or have become resistant to third-generation cephalosporins.

Examples of IV generation cephalosporins are:

Cefepime

Drug form: injection

Merek dagang: Biocepime, Caprifim, Cefepime, Cefinov, Daryacef, Fiontic, Futapim, Macef, Maxilan, Nacepim, Procepim, Vipime, Zepe

To find out the dosage and further information about this drug, please open the cefepime drug page .

Cefpirome

Drug form: injection

Trademarks: Bactirom, Bioprom, Cefpirome, Cefir, Cefrin, Cefnos, Erpharom, Interome, Lanpirome, Morcef, Nufirom, Rime, Romicef

To find out the dosage and further information about this drug, please open the cefpirome drug page .

5. Generation V cephalosporin

Generation V cephalosporins are effective for treating Enterobacter faecalis  and MRSA bacterial infections that are resistant to several types of antibiotics. Examples of fifth-generation cephalosporins are:

Ceftaroline fosamil

Drug form: injection

Trademark: Zinforo

To find out the dosage and further information about this drug, please open the ceftaroline fosamil drug page .

Ceftolozane/Tazobactam

Drug form: injection

Trademark: Zerbaxa

For severe gastrointestinal infections or urinary tract infections, the dose is 1.5 grams (1 gram of ceftolozane and 0.5 grams of tazobactam). Meanwhile, to treat pneumonia, the dose is 3 grams (2 grams of ceftolozane and 1 gram of tazobactam). The length of treatment depends on the type and severity of the infection.

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