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Cervical cancer

Cervical cancer

Definition of Cervical Cancer

Cervical cancer is cancer that grows in cells in the cervix. This cancer generally develops slowly and only shows symptoms when it has entered an advanced stage. Therefore, it is important to detect cervical cancer early before serious problems arise.

The cervix or cervix is ​​the part of the uterus that is connected to the vagina. Its function is to produce mucus which helps transport sperm from the vagina to the uterus during sexual intercourse. The cervix also functions to protect the uterus from bacteria and foreign objects from outside.

Cervical cancer or cervical cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in women. Based on research in 2020, there are more than 600,000 cases of cervical cancer with 342,000 deaths worldwide.

In Indonesia, cervical cancer ranks second after breast cancer as the most common type of cancer of all cancer cases in 2020. There have been more than 36,000 cases and 21,000 deaths from this cancer.

Types of Cervical Cancer

Cervical cancer is divided into two types, namely:

  • Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)
    Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of cervical cancer. SCC begins in cervical squamous cells, which are cells that line the outside of the cervix.
  • Adenocarcinoma
    Adenocarcinoma is a type of cervical cancer that begins in the glandular cells in the cervical canal.

Although rare, the two types of cervical cancer above can occur simultaneously. Cancer can also occur in cervical cells other than squamous cells or gland cells, but this is very rare.

Causes of Cervical Cancer

Cervical cancer occurs when healthy cells undergo changes or mutations. This mutation causes these cells to grow abnormally and uncontrollably, thus forming cancer cells.

It is not yet known what causes the change in the gene. However, this condition is known to be associated with HPV infection.

Life expectancy

Life expectancy in patients with cervical cancer depends on the stage they are experiencing. This figure is an illustration of the percentage of patients who are still alive 5 years after being diagnosed with cervical cancer.

For example, an 80% survival rate means that 80 out of 100 sufferers survive for 5 years or more after being diagnosed with cervical cancer.

The following are life expectancy in cervical cancer patients based on the stage they are experiencing:

  • Stage 1: 80–93%
  • Stage 2: 58–63%
  • Stage 3: 32–35%
  • Stage 4 : ≤16%

Cervical Cancer Treatment and Prevention

Treatment of cervical cancer depends on the stage of cancer experienced by the patient and his health condition. Actions performed by doctors include chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery, or a combination of the three.

The chance for cervical cancer sufferers to recover will be greater if this condition is detected early. Therefore, every woman is advised to undergo regular cervical cancer screening from the age of 21 or since marriage. In addition, prevention of HPV infection that can trigger cancer can also be done with vaccines from the age of 10 years.

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