Skip to content
Chronic Renal Failure

Chronic Renal Failure

Chronic kidney failure is a condition when kidney function decreases gradually due to damage to kidney tissue. Medically, chronic kidney failure is defined as a decrease in the filtering rate of the kidneys for 3 months or more. 

The main function of the kidneys is to filter waste (wastes of the body's metabolism) and excess fluid from the blood to be excreted through urine. Each day, the two kidneys filter around 120–150 liters of blood and produce around 1–2 liters of urine.

Inside the kidney, there are filtering units called nephrons which consist of glomeruli and tubules. The glomerulus filters fluids and wastes for excretion, but prevents blood cells and blood proteins from leaving the body. Furthermore, the minerals the body needs will be absorbed in the tubules so they are not wasted with the urine.

In addition to filtering waste and excess fluids, the kidneys also function to:

  • Produces renin enzymes that keep blood pressure and salt levels in the body normal
  • Makes the hormone erythropoietin which stimulates the bone marrow to produce red blood cells
  • Producing vitamin D in an active form which is beneficial for maintaining bone health

Chronic kidney failure (CKD) or chronic kidney disease (CKD) causes fluids, electrolytes and waste to build up in the body and cause many problems. Symptoms can be more pronounced when kidney function has decreased. In advanced stages, CRF can be dangerous if left untreated, one of which is dialysis .

Chronic kidney failure is a global health problem whose number continues to increase. Based on the results of the 2013 Basic Health Research by the Indonesian Ministry of Health, 0.2% of the entire population of Indonesia suffers from chronic kidney failure.

A survey conducted by the association of kidney doctors throughout Indonesia shows that most chronic kidney failure in Indonesia occurs due to uncontrolled hypertension and diabetes ( diabetic nephropathy ).

Symptoms and Causes of Chronic Kidney Failure

Symptoms in patients with chronic kidney failure stages 1-3 are usually not so visible. Usually, the symptoms of chronic kidney failure are only felt when they reach stages 4 and 5 due to the severity of the body's metabolic disorders.

Symptoms found in patients with CKD include:

  • Uncontrolled high blood pressure
  • Swelling in the feet and ankles
  • Urinate a little
  • Found urine in blood

Chronic kidney failure is caused by damage to kidney tissue triggered by long-term disease. Some diseases that can  cause kidney failure  are diabetes, high blood pressure, and gout.

Treatment and Prevention of Chronic Renal Failure

Handling CRF aims to relieve symptoms and prevent this disease from getting worse due to waste that cannot be excreted from the body. For this reason, early detection and prompt treatment are urgently needed.

In general, treatment for chronic kidney failure includes:

  • Administration of drugs
  • Dialysis
  • Kidney transplant

CRF can be prevented by living a healthy lifestyle and controlling diseases that can increase the risk of chronic kidney failure.

Complications of Chronic Kidney Failure

Chronic kidney failure can lead to a number of complications, namely:

  • Electrolyte disturbances, such as a buildup of phosphorus and hyperkalemia or high levels of potassium in the blood
  • Heart and blood vessel disease
  • Accumulation of excess fluid in body cavities, for example pulmonary edema or ascites
  • Anemia or lack of red blood cells
  • Central nervous system damage that can cause seizures
Back to blog