Coughing blood

Coughing blood

Hemoptysis or bloody cough is a cough with sputum that contains blood . This blood can come from the nose, throat, larynx , and lungs.  

Coughing up blood indicates damage to the blood vessels around the respiratory tract. This condition can be a sign of a respiratory tract disease that is serious and requires treatment.

Causes of Cough B hemorrhagic

The causes of hemorrhagic cough are very diverse. The following are the causes of bloody cough due to diseases in the respiratory tract :

  • Aspergillosis
  • Bronchitis
  • Lung infection or pneumonia
  • TB
  • Bronchiectasis
  • Entry of foreign objects into the respiratory tract
  • Rupture of blood vessels in the respiratory tract (bronchial varices)
  • Pulmonary hypertension
  • Pulmonary edema
  • Pulmonary embolism
  • Injury in the chest area
  • Lung cancer

In addition to diseases in the respiratory tract, hemorrhagic cough can also be caused by other conditions, such as:

  • Side effects of blood thinners
  • Side effects of drug use
  • Chronic cough
  • Heart failure, especially due to mitral valve disease
  • Autoimmune diseases , such as lupus, Wegener's granulomatosis, or Churg-Strauss syndrome

Risk factors for hemorrhagic cough

Depending on the cause, a person will be more prone or at risk of developing a hemorrhagic cough if they have the following factors:

  • Smoking
  • Suffering from HIV/AIDS
  • Taking immunosuppressant drugs
  • Ever undergone an operation or hospitalization in the hospital
  • Having a family history of blood clotting disorders

Symptoms of Cough B hemorrhagic

A hemorrhagic cough is marked by coughing up blood. The amount of blood that comes out depends on how severe the condition is and the cause of the bloody cough itself. Unlike vomiting blood that is usually colored like coffee, hemoptysis or coughing up blood that is bright red.

The blood that comes out when coughing sometimes also foams due to mixing with air. Blood can also come out with sputum in large amounts or only in patches.

Depending on the cause, there are other symptoms that can also accompany a bloody cough, namely:

  • Cough for several weeks before coughing up blood
  • Chest pain
  • Fever
  • Sweating at night
  • The body feels tired and weak
  • Loss of appetite
  • Weight loss

When do you go to the doctor ?

Hemorrhagic cough is one of the symptoms of diseases in the respiratory tract. Therefore, immediately check yourself with a doctor if you experience a bloody cough, so that the cause can be known.

Immediately go to the emergency room (IGD) if you experience a hemorrhagic cough with the following conditions:

  • Coughing up blood that occurs after a fall or an injury to the chest
  • There is blood in the stool or urine
  • Blood coming out up to 1 glass of mineral water (240 ml) or blood coming out continuously
  • Symptoms of shock appear , such as dark vision, cold sweat, and shortness of breath

The main cause of hemorrhagic cough in Indonesia is tuberculosis. Therefore, if you suffer from TB , check with your doctor regularly. This is because TB treatment takes a long time, which is at least 6 months.

Diagnosis of Cough B hemorrhagic

To diagnose the cause of hemorrhagic cough, the doctor will first ask about the symptoms experienced by the patient. After that, the doctor will perform a physical examination.

Further, the doctor will perform a supporting examination to determine the cause of the bloody cough and the severity of the disease. The supporting examinations carried out include:

  • Sputum examination, to see bacteria that could be the cause of bloody cough
  • X-ray or CT scan, to see the condition of the lungs
  • Respiratory tract binoculars ( bronchoscopy ), also to see the condition of the respiratory tract from the inside
  • Blood test, to check for blood clotting abnormalities or not

Hemorrhagic Cough Treatment

Treatment of hemorrhagic cough is tailored to the cause. If the hemorrhagic cough is caused by TB, the patient will undergo treatment with a combination of antituberculosis drugs (OAT) . The patient will undergo treatment for several months and must follow the doctor's recommendations to prevent TB bacterial resistance.

If the bloody cough is caused by lung cancer , the patient will undergo cancer removal surgery. Patients can also undergo chemotherapy , radiotherapy, or a combination of both, to kill the remaining cancer tissue and prevent the cancer from reappearing.

Patients with severe hemoptysis can lose a large amount of blood and experience hypovolemic shock . Hypovolemic shock is an emergency condition that must be dealt with immediately, because it can endanger the life of someone who coughs up blood.

To overcome the condition, the doctor will give a large amount of infusion in order to maintain blood flow throughout the body.

Complications of Cough B hemorrhagic

A hemorrhagic cough that produces a large amount of blood can cause shock due to the loss of a lot of blood. Symptoms of shock are generally in the form of weakness, paleness, cold sweat, and loss of consciousness .

Depending on the cause, some other complications that can appear as a result of a hemorrhagic cough are:

  • Accumulation of fluid in the lining of the lungs ( pleural effusion )
  • Heart disorders
  • Lung abscess
  • Lung tissue injury

Prevention of whooping cough

Hemorrhagic cough can be prevented by avoiding the disease that causes it. Some behaviors that can be done to maintain the health of the respiratory tract are:

  • Keep the air ventilation in the house good
  • No smoking
  • Wash your hands diligently
  • Cover your mouth when sneezing or coughing
  • Use appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) when working
  • Applying a healthy lifestyle, such as consuming fruit and vegetables, as well as exercising regularly
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