Cysts are lumps under the skin that are filled with fluid, air , pus, or a solid substance such as hair. These lumps can grow in any part of the body and are generally not cancerous or malignant tumors.

Although they generally grow under the skin, cysts can also grow in internal organs, such as the ovaries. Cysts usually grow slowly and are usually painless. However, pain can occur if the cyst enlarges and presses on an organ, ruptures, becomes infected, or grows in a sensitive area.

Causes of Cysts

Depending on the type, cysts can form as a result of:

  • Infection
  • Blockage in the ducts in the body
  • Inflammation that occurs in the long term (chronic)
  • Congenital disease

The following is an explanation of the causes of cysts which are divided by type:

Kista Baker

A Baker 's cyst or popliteal cyst is a fluid-filled lump that forms behind the knee as a result of arthritis or a knee injury. These cysts can cause swelling and pain when bending or straightening the leg. This lump can also cause the sufferer's movement to be limited.

Branchial cleft cyst

Branchial cleft cyst is a congenital disease characterized by the appearance of a lump on one or both sides of the neck. Lumps can also grow under the collarbone. This condition occurs in the fifth week of fetal development.

Cyst epidermoid

Epidermoid cysts are cysts that can grow on the head, neck, face or back. This cyst is characterized by a small lump, hard, brownish yellow, and filled with thick, smelly fluid.

Epidermoid cysts are caused by a buildup of the protein that makes up hair, skin, and nails (keratin), under the skin.

Kista ganglion

Ganglion cysts are fluid-filled lumps along the tendons, which are the connective tissues of muscles and bones, and joints. The lumps usually grow on the arms or wrists, but they can also grow on the feet and ankles. These cysts can form as a result of injury or arthritis.


A chalazion cyst is a lump or swelling on the upper eyelid, lower eyelid, or both. Chalazion can also occur in one or both eyes. The cause is a blockage in the oil glands of the eyelids.

Clean him up

A mucocele is a fluid-filled lump  that forms on the lips or around the mouth. These cysts form when the salivary glands are blocked by mucus.

Generally, mucoceles develop on the lower lip, but they can grow anywhere in the mouth.

Ovarian cyst

As the name suggests, ovarian cysts are fluid-filled lumps that form in or on the surface of the ovaries (ovaries). Generally, ovarian cysts do not cause any symptoms. However, an ovarian cyst that gets bigger can cause pain in the pelvis, lower back, and thighs.

Breast cyst

Breast cysts are fluid-filled lumps that can be round or oval in shape in the breast. Women can have one or more cysts in one or both breasts.

Breast cysts occur due to fluid buildup in the breast glands. These lumps are generally soft, but sometimes they can feel solid to the touch.

Pilar cyst

Pilar cysts or trichilemal cysts are lumps that grow on the surface of the skin. These cysts can appear anywhere on the body, but generally grow on the scalp.

Pilar cysts are caused by a buildup of keratin in hair follicles. Pilar cyst lumps are round, solid to touch, with a color similar to skin color.

Pilonidal cyst

A pilonidal cyst is a lump at the top of the buttocks. These lumps generally contain hair and dirt, and cause pain. If infected, a pilonidal cyst can ooze pus and blood which is accompanied by an unpleasant odor.

Atheroma cyst

Atheroma cysts or sebaceous cysts are fluid-filled lumps that appear on the face, neck, chest or back. The lumps grow slowly and are benign, but can be painful if they grow.

Atheroma cyst is caused by a blockage in the oil gland.

Cyst acne

Cystic acne is a type of acne that is formed from a combination of bacteria, oil, and dry skin cells that get trapped in the pores. Cystic pimples are generally large like boils, filled with pus, and painful when touched.

Cystic acne can be experienced by anyone, but it is more often experienced by people with oily skin and suffering from hormonal disorders

Cyst risk factors

There are a number of factors that can increase the risk of developing cysts, namely:

  • Have a family that suffers from cysts
  • Experiencing injuries or abnormalities in certain body organs
  • Suffering from infection
  • Suffering from a tumor or cancer
  • Have a blockage in the channel in the body

Cyst Symptoms

The main symptom of a cyst is a lump that grows in certain parts of the body. Depending on the type of cyst you are experiencing, these lumps can grow on your face, neck, chest, back, scalp, palms or soles of your feet.

Cyst lumps can be small to large. Apart from lumps, cysts can also cause other symptoms, such as:

  • Redness of the skin around the cyst area
  • Blood or pus that smells bad comes out of the lump
  • Pain due to infection in the cyst
  • Stiffness or tingling, especially in parts of the body where cysts grow

In addition to the symptoms above, ovarian cysts can cause special symptoms because they are located in organs in the body. Some of the symptoms are:

  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Fever
  • Dizzy
  • Mild or severe pain in the lower abdomen
  • Pain during intercourse
  • Lower abdomen feels full or bloated
  • Pain during menstruation

When to see a doctor

Check with your doctor if you feel a lump growing in a certain part of your body. Early examination needs to be done to get the right diagnosis, because the growth of a lump can indicate various conditions, such as ulcers or cancer.

In addition, immediately see a doctor if a lump in your body causes pain or swelling. This can indicate that the lump is a cyst that has ruptured or is infected.

Diagnosis Cyst

To diagnose a cyst, the doctor will conduct a question and answer regarding the symptoms and complaints experienced by the patient, as well as the patient's medical history. After that, the doctor will do a physical examination of the visible lump area.

Doctors can diagnose cysts through a physical examination of the lump. However, to be sure, the doctor needs to carry out further examinations, such as:

  • Scanning
    The doctor can do an ultrasound, CT scan , or MRI, especially if the lump is not visible right away, such as in an ovarian cyst). This scan aims to see the contents of the lump and whether the lump is cancerous.
  • Biopsy
    Biopsy is the taking of cyst tissue samples for examination in the laboratory. A biopsy will help your doctor determine whether a cyst is cancerous or not.

Cyst Treatment

Cysts can disappear by themselves without treatment. However, patients can speed up the healing process by applying a warm compress to the cyst. In addition, patients are also prohibited from squeezing or popping the cyst, because it can cause infection.

If the cyst doesn't go away, do a doctor's examination to get the right treatment. Doctors can remove cysts using the following methods:

  • Inject corticosteroids, to reduce inflammation in the cyst
  • Pierce the cyst with a needle and suck up the fluid in the cyst
  • Remove the cyst through surgery, if aspiration is not successful

Cyst Complications

Cyst complications occur when the cyst is too large to press on the surrounding organs. For example, enlarged ovarian cysts can put pressure on the bladder, causing sufferers to experience urinary incontinence or urinary tract infections.

In addition, cysts that are in the body can burst and release pus. This pus can cause sepsis and adhesions to the organs around the growth of the cyst.

Cyst Prevention

Although in general cysts cannot be prevented, there are several types of cysts that can be avoided. The following are several types of cysts and their prevention:

  • Ovarian cysts can be prevented by taking birth control pills , but consult your doctor first.
  • Chalazion can be prevented by cleaning the eyelids using a gentle cleanser, especially after using cosmetics.
  • Pilonidal cysts can be prevented by keeping the skin dry and clean, and not sitting for too long.
Back to blog