Migraines are headaches that feel throbbing and usually occur on one side of the head. Migraines can last for hours or even days.
According to WHO research results, of the total age group 18–65 years who have had headaches, 30 percent of them are migraine sufferers. Generally, migraine symptoms first appear during puberty, then worsen when entering the age of 35-45 years.
Migraines are more common in women, because they are thought to be related to hormonal changes. However, migraines can also affect men and children .
Migraine Symptoms and Triggers
The main symptom of a migraine is an intense headache on one side of the head. The pain that is felt is generally throbbing pain of moderate to severe intensity, which is felt more when moving, seeing bright lights, or hearing loud noises.
The emergence of migraines can be triggered by increased levels of the hormone estrogen, or emotional factors, such as stress or anxiety. The use of certain drugs, such as birth control pills, can also trigger migraines.
Types of Migraines
Based on the type of attack, migraines can be divided into:
Migraine without aura
Migraine without aura is the most common type of migraine. Migraine pain appears suddenly without any previous symptoms. Sometimes, the symptoms of this type of migraine can be similar to those of sinusitis .
Migraine with aura
Migraine with aura begins with signs of the aura stages before the headache appears, such as seeing flashes of light. As many as 15 to 20 percent of migraine sufferers experience this phase.
Migraine with aura, but no headache.
This condition known as “silent migraine” starts with all the signs or symptoms of a migraine, but no headache.
migraines Chronic migraines are migraines that occur for at least 15 days per month. Symptoms can vary, as can the severity and pain. Generally, this type of migraine is caused by excessive use of drugs.
Migraine Treatment and Prevention
There's no specific method for treating migraines, but the symptoms can be relieved by a combination of self-care, medication , and lifestyle changes.
Meanwhile, migraine prevention can be done by avoiding trigger factors, including by improving sleep quality, exercising regularly, stopping smoking, and having regular health checks.