Dysmenorrhea or menstrual pain is pain or cramps in the lower abdomen that appear before or during menstruation . Dysmenorrhea can be mild, but it can also be so severe that it interferes with daily activities.

Dysmenorrhea is divided into two types, namely primary and secondary. Primary dysmenorrhea is cramps that appear before or during menstruation, then disappear as the menstrual period ends.


While secondary dysmenorrhea is dysmenorrhea due to disorders of the reproductive organs. Patients with secondary dysmenorrhea will feel cramps longer than primary dysmenorrhea.

The cramps in secondary dysmenorrhea get worse as menstruation progresses. In some cases, cramps are still felt even after menstruation has ended.

Symptoms and Complications of Dysmenorrhea

The main symptom of dysmenorrhea is cramping in the lower abdomen. These symptoms are normal and nothing to worry about. With age, dysmenorrhea will gradually disappear.

Although it rarely causes complications, symptoms of dysmenorrhea can interfere with daily activities. Especially in dysmenorrhea caused by certain diseases, complications can arise in the form of:

  • Fertility problems
  • fallopian tube infection
  • Pregnant outside the womb

Dysmenorrhea Treatment and Prevention

Dysmenorrhea can be treated independently by applying a warm compress to the stomach, taking a warm bath, or taking pain relievers. However, if the dysmenorrhea feels severe, treatment needs to be done by a doctor.

Cramps during menstruation are normal. However, worsening cramps during menstruation can be prevented by taking the following steps:

  • Exercise regularly, at least 30 minutes every day
  • Get enough rest and sleep
  • Eat a complete and balanced nutritious diet
  • Limit consumption of caffeine, especially near menstruation time
  • Do not smoke and consume alcoholic beverages
  • Managing stress, among others, by doing relaxation techniques
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