Epididymal Cyst

Epididymal Cyst

Epididymal cysts are small, fluid-filled lumps that form in the epididymal duct.  This condition is also known as a spermatic cyst or spermatocele. Epididymal cysts are generally harmless, but they can grow and cause pain.

The epididymis  is the channel that is the storage and distribution of sperm . This canal is shaped like a small tube that is located at the top of the testicles .

Causes of Epididymal Cysts

Epididymal cysts are thought to occur when the epididymal duct is blocked. As a result, the liquid inside cannot get out.

It is not yet known what causes and factors can increase a person's risk of experiencing this disease. However, it is known that epididymal cysts are more common in men aged 20–50 years.

Epididymal Cyst Symptoms

Epididymal cysts usually do not cause any signs and symptoms. Cyst size also tends not to change. However, if the size of the cyst is large enough, signs and symptoms that may appear include:

  • Soft lump on the top, bottom or back of the testicle
  • Pain, swelling, and redness in the scrotum (scrotum)
  • Pain in the groin, stomach, or lower back
  • The scrotum (scrotum) feels heavy, full, and hard
  • Swelling of the epididymis

When to see a doctor

Check with your doctor if you experience the above symptoms, especially if the scrotum is swollen and painful.

Examination to the doctor still needs to be done if there is a lump in the testicles, even if it doesn't feel painful. This aims to rule out the possibility that the complaint is caused by a hernia or testicular cancer .

Diagnosis of Epididymal Cyst

To diagnose epididymal cysts, the doctor will ask about symptoms and perform a physical examination of the patient's testicles. The physical examination is carried out by irradiating the testicular area with a light, also known as the transillumination technique.

If the patient has an epididymal cyst, the beam will penetrate the testes. However, if the light does not penetrate the testes, it can be suspected that the patient has a tumor or testicular cancer. To be sure, the doctor will do a testicular ultrasound scan .

Treatment of Epididymal Cysts

Epididymal cysts generally get smaller over time and don't get bigger. In these conditions, epididymal cysts do not need to be treated, especially if the cyst is painless. However, if pain occurs, the doctor will prescribe pain relievers, such as paracetamol or ibuprofen .

Meanwhile, for epididymal cysts that are enlarged and cause pain, treatment can be done with the following medical procedures:

  • Aspiration, which is a procedure to remove epididymal cyst fluid using a needle that is injected directly into the cyst
  • Percutanous sclerotherapy , which is the administration of ethanol through a catheter to kill the cyst
  • Spermatocelectomy , which is surgery to separate the cyst from the epididymis

Epididymal Cyst Complications

Epididymal cysts rarely cause complications. However, spermatocelectomy carries the risk of causing damage to the epididymis and vas deferens , namely the tubes that transport sperm from the epididymis to the penis. These conditions can reduce the patient 's fertility rate .

Prevention of Epididymal Cysts

There is no known way to prevent epididymal cysts. However, you can periodically do a self-examination of the scrotum, so that you can find out if there are lumps in the scrotum.

Examination can be done by feeling all parts of the scrotum one by one. You can use a mirror, so that it is clear if there are abnormalities in the scrotum , including swelling. Check at least 1 time per month and immediately go to the doctor if there is a change or swelling.

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