Ewing's Sarcoma

Ewing's Sarcoma

Ewing's sarcoma or Ewing's sarcoma is a malignant tumor that appears in the bone or soft tissue around the bone. This type of cancer is very rare, but can be experienced by anyone, especially children and adolescents aged 10-20 years.

Ewing's sarcoma is a type of bone cancer in children . This cancer can appear and develop in any bone of the body, especially the femur, shinbone, upper arm bone, and pelvis.

Sometimes, tumors can also appear in the tissue around the bone, such as muscle, connective tissue, or fat tissue. If treated quickly, the chances of healing Ewing's sarcoma are even greater.

Jenis Ewing’s Sarcoma

Based on the location of the appearance of the tumor, Ewing's sarcoma cancer can be divided into several types, namely:

  • Ewing's sarcoma bone tumor
    occurs in any part of the bone, such as the femur, pelvis, ribs, or collarbone.
  • Soft tissue
    tumors These sarcoma tumors appear in the soft tissue around the bone, such as muscle or cartilage.
  • Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET)
    This type of Ewing's sarcoma tumor forms in nerve tissue in various parts of the body.
  • A skin
    tumor Askin tumor is a type of PNET sarcoma tumor that occurs in the chest.

Causes and Risk Factors of Ewing's Sarcoma

The cause of Ewing's sarcoma cancer is not known for certain, but this condition is thought to arise due to mutations or genetic changes that occur after birth.

Several studies have shown that Ewing's sarcoma cancer is not related to heredity, radiation exposure, hazardous chemicals, or environmental factors. Therefore, the risk factors for this cancer are also unknown.

Symptoms of Ewing's Sarcoma

Symptoms of Ewing's sarcoma depend on the size and location of the tumor. The main symptom of this cancer is pain and swelling in the area where the tumor has formed, such as the arms, legs, pelvis, or chest. These symptoms appear when the tumor begins to enlarge and press on the surrounding tissue.

The pain may last for weeks or months, and may get worse during exercise or at night. Sometimes, symptoms of cancer are accompanied by the appearance of a lump on the surface of the skin that feels warm and tender to the touch.

Ewing's sarcoma also has some additional symptoms, such as:

  • Prolonged intermittent fever
  • Body tired easily
  • Loss of appetite
  • Drastic weight loss
  • Pale
  • Broken bones for no apparent reason
  • Paralysis or urinary incontinence , if the tumor is located near the spine

When to see a doctor

Immediately consult a doctor if the symptoms mentioned above appear. The symptoms of Ewing's sarcoma can mimic those of other diseases. Therefore, it is necessary to do an examination so that cancer can be detected early and treatment can be done immediately.

If the treatment is successful in eliminating cancer cells, the patient is still recommended to undergo regular examinations for several years. This is because Ewing's sarcoma is at risk of reappearing even though the patient has been declared cured.

Diagnosis Ewing’s Sarcoma

The doctor will ask for symptoms and check for lumps or body parts that have abnormalities. Next, the doctor will use a scan to detect the size and location of the tumor. The types of scan tests performed can be:

  • X-ray photo
  • CT scan
  • MRI
  • PET scan (positron emission tomography)

To confirm the diagnosis and detect the severity of the cancer, the doctor will perform a biopsy . Through this procedure, the doctor will take a sample of tumor tissue for later examination in the laboratory.

Stadium Ewing’s Sarcoma

The stage of Ewing's sarcoma is determined based on the extent of the spread of the tumor in the body. In some conditions, the stage of Ewing's sarcoma refers to the stage of bone cancer which is divided into four stages. However, to determine the type of treatment, doctors use a simpler staging division.

The two stages include:

  • Localized Ewing's sarcoma ( localized Ewing's sarcoma )
    The tumor begins to spread to nearby body tissues, such as muscles and tendons, but has not spread to other parts of the body that are far from where the tumor started.
  • Ewing's sarcoma metastases ( Ewing's sarcoma metastases )
    The tumor has spread to other parts of the body, such as the lungs, bone marrow, or other parts of the bone. Sometimes, the tumor also spreads to the liver and lymph nodes.

Ewing's Sarcoma Treatment

Treatment of Ewing's sarcoma cancer aims to maintain the function of organs affected by cancer, prevent long-term complications due to cancer treatment, and cure patients from cancer.

The method of treatment given to each patient can be different, depending on:

  • Tumor size
  • The rate of spread of the tumor or the stage of the cancer
  • Overall condition of the patient
  • Patient choice

The following are several types of treatment that can be done to treat Ewing's sarcoma cancer:


Chemotherapy is the administration of drugs to kill cancer cells and stop their growth. Chemotherapy is also used to reduce the size of the tumor making it easier for surgeons to remove it surgically.


Surgery is performed to remove cancer cells, maintain the function of the affected organs, and prevent disability. If the cancer has spread to other parts of the body, the doctor will partially remove or amputate the part of the body affected by the cancer.


Radiotherapy is done after surgery to kill any remaining cancer cells. Radiotherapy can also be done as a substitute for surgery if the tumor is located in a part of the body that is difficult to reach and cannot be surgically removed.

Sometimes, stem cell transplantation is done to replace bone marrow cells that are damaged by the side effects of chemotherapy. This treatment method is generally used in patients with advanced Ewing's sarcoma.

Complications of Ewing's Sarcoma

Ewing's sarcoma cancer can spread to other areas of the body, such as the body tissue or bones around the tumor, bone marrow, or lungs. This condition can complicate the treatment and recovery process. This cancer is also at risk of recurrence within a few years after being treated.

As with other cancer treatments, Ewing's sarcoma treatment procedures can also cause side effects, one of which is loss of limbs due to amputation procedures.

Some of the other side effects that can occur as a result of Ewing's sarcoma cancer treatment are:

  • Heart or lung problems
  • Impaired growth and understanding, especially children
  • Sexual dysfunction and inability to have children
  • The emergence of other types of cancer

Prevention of Ewing's Sarcoma

Because the cause has not been determined, the way to prevent Ewing's sarcoma cancer is also unknown. However, there are some simple efforts that can be done to reduce the risk of developing Ewing's sarcoma cancer , namely:

  • Implementing a healthy lifestyle, for example by maintaining an ideal body weight , eating healthy and nutritious foods, and quitting smoking
  • Undergo regular health check-ups to detect cancer early
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