Ewing's Sarcoma

Ewing's Sarcoma

Ewing's sarcoma or Ewing's sarcoma is a malignant tumor that appears in the bone or soft tissue around the bone. This type of cancer is very rare, but can be experienced by anyone, especially children and adolescents aged 10-20 years.

Ewing's sarcoma is a type of bone cancer in children . This cancer can appear and develop in any bone in the body, especially the femur, shinbone, upper arm bone, and pelvis.

Sometimes, tumors can also appear in the tissue around the bone, such as muscle, connective tissue, or fatty tissue. If treated quickly, the chances of healing Ewing's sarcoma are even greater.

Type of Ewing's Sarcoma

Based on the location of the appearance of the tumor, Ewing's sarcoma cancer can be divided into several types, namely:

  • Ewing's sarcoma bone tumor
    occurs in parts of the bone, such as the femur, pelvis, ribs, or collarbone.
  • Soft tissue
    tumors These sarcoma tumors appear in the soft tissue around the bone, such as muscle or cartilage.
  • Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET)
    This type of Ewing's sarcoma tumor forms in nerve tissue in various parts of the body.
  • A skin
    tumor Askin tumor is a type of PNET sarcoma tumor that occurs in the chest.

Causes and Risk Factors for Ewing's Sarcoma

The cause of Ewing's sarcoma cancer is not known for certain, but this condition is thought to arise due to mutations or genetic changes that occur after birth.

Several studies have shown that Ewing's sarcoma cancer is not related to heredity, exposure to radiation, hazardous chemicals, or environmental factors. Therefore, the risk factors for this cancer are also unknown.

Symptoms of Ewing's Sarcoma

Symptoms of Ewing's sarcoma depend on the size and location of the tumor. The main symptoms of this cancer are pain and swelling in the area where the tumor has formed, such as the arm, leg, pelvis or chest. These symptoms appear when the tumor begins to grow and press on the surrounding tissue.

The pain may last for weeks or months, and may get worse during exercise or at night. Sometimes, symptoms of cancer are accompanied by the appearance of a lump on the surface of the skin that feels warm and tender to the touch.

Ewing's sarcoma also has some additional symptoms, such as:

  • Prolonged intermittent fever
  • The body gets tired easily
  • Loss of appetite
  • Weight loss drastically
  • Pale
  • Broken bones for no apparent reason
  • Paralysis or urinary incontinence , if the tumor is located near the spine

When to see a doctor

Immediately consult a doctor if the symptoms mentioned above appear. The symptoms of Ewing's sarcoma can mimic those of other diseases. Therefore, it is necessary to do an examination so that cancer can be detected early and treatment can be done immediately.

If the treatment is successful in eliminating cancer cells, the patient is still advised to undergo routine checks for several years. This is because Ewing's sarcoma has the risk of reappearing even though the patient has been declared cured.

Diagnosis of Ewing's Sarcoma

The doctor will ask about symptoms and check for lumps or body parts that have abnormalities. Next, the doctor will use scans to detect the size and location of the tumor. The type of scan test performed can be:

  • X-ray photo
  • CT scans
  • MRIs
  • PET scan ( positron emission tomography )

To confirm the diagnosis and detect the severity of the cancer, the doctor will do a biopsy . Through this procedure, the doctor will take a sample of tumor tissue to be examined in the laboratory.

Stadium Ewing's Sarcoma

Ewing 's sarcoma stage is determined based on the extent of the spread of the tumor in the body. In some conditions, the stage of Ewing's sarcoma refers to the stage of bone cancer which is divided into four stages. However, to determine the type of treatment, doctors use a simpler staging division.

The two stages include:

  • Localized Ewing's sarcoma ( localized Ewing's sarcoma )
    The tumor has started to spread to nearby body tissues, such as muscles and tendons, but has not spread to other parts of the body that are located far from where the tumor started.
  • Metastatic Ewing's sarcoma ( metastatic Ewing's sarcoma )
    The tumor has spread to other parts of the body, such as the lungs, bone marrow, or other parts of the bones. Sometimes, the tumor also spreads to the liver and lymph nodes.

Treatment of Ewing's Sarcoma

Treatment of Ewing's sarcoma cancer aims to maintain the function of organs affected by cancer, prevent long-term complications due to cancer treatment, and cure patients from cancer.

The treatment method given to each patient can be different, depending on:

  • Tumor size
  • The rate of spread of the tumor or the stage of the cancer
  • Overall condition of the patient
  • Patient choice

The following are several types of treatment that can be done to treat Ewing's sarcoma cancer:


Chemotherapy is the administration of drugs to kill cancer cells and stop their growth. Chemotherapy is also used to reduce the size of the tumor making it easier for surgeons to remove it surgically.


Surgery is performed to remove cancer cells, maintain the function of the affected organs, and prevent disability. If the cancer has spread to other parts of the body, the doctor will partially remove or amputate the part of the body affected by the cancer.


Radiotherapy is done after surgery to kill any remaining cancer cells. Radiotherapy can also be used as a substitute for surgery if the tumor is in a hard-to-reach part of the body and cannot be removed surgically.

Sometimes, a stem cell transplant method ( stem cell ) is performed to replace bone marrow cells damaged by side effects of chemotherapy. This method of treatment is generally performed on patients with advanced stages of Ewing's sarcoma.

Complications of Ewing's Sarcoma

Ewing's sarcoma cancer can spread to other areas of the body, such as the body tissue or bones around the tumor, bone marrow, or lungs. This condition can complicate the treatment and recovery process. This cancer is also at risk of recurrence within a few years after being treated.

As with other cancer treatments, Ewing's sarcoma treatment procedures can also cause side effects, one of which is the loss of limbs due to amputation procedures.

Some other side effects that can occur due to treatment for Ewing's sarcoma cancer are:

  • Heart or lung problems
  • Impaired growth and understanding, especially children
  • Sexual dysfunction and inability to have children
  • Occurrence of other types of cancer

Prevention of Ewing's Sarcoma

Because the cause has not been ascertained, the way to prevent Ewing's sarcoma cancer is also unknown. However, there are some simple steps that can be taken to reduce the risk of developing Ewing's sarcoma , namely:

  • Adopting a healthy lifestyle, for example by maintaining an ideal body weight , consuming healthy and nutritious food, and stopping smoking
  • Undergo routine health checks to detect cancer early
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