Fibrinolytics are drugs to break up blood clots that block blood vessels and block blood flow to vital organs. This drug is generally used in emergency situations, such as a heart attack, pulmonary embolism, or ischemic stroke.

Fibrinolytics or thrombolytics are used to save the patient's life and reduce the risk of serious organ damage. Fibrinolytics are more effective if used soon after symptoms appear. However, this drug can still be given 3 hours after the appearance of stroke symptoms , or 12-24 hours after a heart attack.

Fibrinolytics work by activating the breakdown of fibrin in blood clots. Fibrin itself is a protein that forms blood clots. Fibrinolytics will change the structure of fibrin so that blood clots can break down and dissolve into the blood. That way, blood flow to the organs will also return.

Precautions Before Using Fibrinolytics

Pay attention to the following points before using fibrinolytic drugs:

  • Tell your doctor about any history of allergies you have. Fibrinolytic drugs should not be used in patients who are allergic to these drugs.
  • Tell your doctor if you have recently had a biopsy, lumbar puncture , or major surgery, especially surgery on the brain or spine.
  • Tell your doctor if you have recently had a serious injury, especially to the head, in the last 3 months.
  • Tell your doctor if you have diabetic retinopathy ; gastrointestinal or urinary tract bleeding in the last 3 weeks; or stroke that occurred within the last 3 months.
  • Tell your doctor if you have symptoms of a stroke, such as weakness or numbness on one side of your body accompanied by seizures, neck stiffness , vomiting, blurred vision, and sudden headaches.
  • Tell your doctor if you have brain tumor or cancer, acute pericarditis , endocarditis , acute pancreatitis, hemophilia , active bleeding, brain aneurysm or aortic aneurysm , uncontrolled severe hypertension, or severe liver disease.
  • Do not use fibrinolytics if you are taking anticoagulant medications . Tell your doctor if you are using other drugs, supplements or herbal medicines, to anticipate drug interactions.
  • Do not consume alcoholic beverages after undergoing treatment with fibrinolytics, because it can increase the risk of bleeding.
  • Be careful when doing activities that have a risk of causing bleeding, such as sports that involve physical contact, or using sharp objects.
  • Tell your doctor if you are pregnant, breastfeeding, have recently given birth, or are planning a pregnancy.
  • Tell your doctor if you have recently been treated with fibrinolytics before having any laboratory tests or medical procedures, including surgery.
  • Immediately consult a doctor if a drug allergic reaction or more serious side effects occur after using fibrinolytic drugs.

Side Effects and Dangers of Fibrinolytics

Fibrinolytic drugs can increase the risk of bleeding that is heavy or difficult to stop. Bleeding can be in the form of bleeding from a surgical wound or the injection area. Bleeding can also occur inside the body, such as in the muscles, intestines, kidneys, stomach, bladder, or brain.

Call your doctor right away if you have bleeding symptoms, such as:

  • Bruises, nosebleeds , or bleeding gums that occur without a trigger and are difficult to stop
  • Blood coming out of the urinary catheter, the injected area, or postoperative wounds
  • Pink or red urine, bloody or black stools, vomiting blood , or vomit like coffee grounds
  • Symptoms of a hemorrhagic stroke (bleeding in the brain), such as a severe headache, weakness or numbness on one side of the body, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, and sudden vision problems

Seek medical attention right away if you have an allergic reaction or serious side effects, such as:

  • Fingers or toes turn dark or purplish in color
  • Slow heartbeat, shortness of breath , feeling like you're about to faint
  • Heart palpitations, chest pain, or chest pressure
  • Sudden severe back pain, muscle weakness, and numbness in the arms or legs
  • Symptoms of kidney disorders, which can be marked by a drastic increase in body weight, swelling of the body, difficulty urinating, or decreased frequency of urination
  • High blood pressure , which can be characterized by severe headaches, blurred vision, or anxiety
  • Acute pancreatitis , which can be characterized by pain in the upper abdomen that radiates to the back, accompanied by nausea and vomiting

Some other side effects that can arise after using fibrinolytics are:

  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Dizzy
  • Fever

Check with your doctor if the complaints mentioned above do not subside or are getting worse.

Types, Trademarks, and Dosage of Fibrinolytics

The types and trademarks of fibrinolytics vary. While the dosage of fibrinolytics depends on the type and form of the drug, as well as the patient's condition. Here is the explanation:

1. Alteplase

Drug form: Powder for injection

Trademark: Actelyse

To find out the dosage and further information about this drug, please open the  alteplase drug page .

2. Streptokinase

Medicinal form: Infusion powder

Trademark: Fibrion

To find out the dosage and further information about this drug, please open the  streptokinase drug page .

3. Tenecteplase

Drug form: Powder for injection

Trademark: Metalyse

To find out the dosage and further information about this drug, please open the  tenecteplase drug page .

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