Hepatitis B Vaccine

Hepatitis B Vaccine

The hepatitis B vaccine is  a vaccine to prevent infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Hepatitis B vaccine is a mandatory type of vaccination for children.

Hepatitis B vaccine contains inactivated hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg). This vaccine works by stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies to fight the virus.

Hepatitis B virus can be transmitted through contact with blood or body fluids from hepatitis B sufferers. Hepatitis B virus that persists and survives in a person's body can progress to become a chronic disease and cause dangerous complications, such as  cirrhosis and liver cancer .

Hepatitis B vaccine trademark:  Engerix-B

What is Hepatitis B Vaccine

class Prescription drug
Category Vaccine
Benefit Prevent hepatitis B virus infection
Consumed by Baby to adult
Hepatitis B vaccine for pregnant and lactating women Category C:  Animal studies have shown an adverse effect on the fetus, but there have been no controlled studies in pregnant women.

Drugs should only be used if the expected benefit outweighs the risk to the fetus.

It is not yet known whether the hepatitis B vaccine can be absorbed into breast milk or not. Breastfeeding mothers are advised to consult a doctor before using this vaccine.

Drug form Inject

Warning Before Undergoing Hepatitis B Vaccination 

The following are some things you need to pay attention to before getting vaccinated with the hepatitis B vaccine:

  • Tell your doctor about any history of allergies you have. Hepatitis B vaccine should not be given to people who are allergic to any of the ingredients in this vaccine.
  • Hepatitis B booster vaccine should not be given to someone who has had an allergic reaction to this vaccine before.
  • Tell your doctor if you are suffering from an infectious disease or fever , giving the hepatitis B vaccine will be postponed until your complaints improve.
  • Tell your doctor if you have or currently have kidney disease, multiple sclerosis , a weakened immune system, liver disease , or a blood clotting disorder, such as hemophilia or thrombocytopenia .
  • Tell your doctor if you are having chemotherapy or taking immunosuppressant drugs .
  • Tell your doctor if you are taking supplements, herbal products, or medications, including anticoagulant drugs, such as warfarin .
  • Tell your doctor if you are pregnant, breastfeeding or planning a pregnancy.
  • See a doctor immediately if you have an allergic drug reaction, serious side effects, or an overdose after receiving the hepatitis B vaccine.

Hepatitis B Vaccine Dosage and Schedule 

Based on the Regulations of the Minister of Health of the Republic of Indonesia No. 42 of 2013 and No. 12 of 2017 concerning the administration of immunization, the administration of the hepatitis B vaccine is one of the mandatory immunizations given to children.

The World Health Organization (WHO)  also recommends that all babies receive their first dose of hepatitis B vaccine within a maximum of 24 hours after birth.

The dose of the hepatitis B vaccine will be adjusted to the age and condition of the patient, as well as the intended use of the drug. Here are the details:

  • Adults >18 years: 0.5–1 ml, 3 times. The vaccine administration schedule is calculated with month 0 as the first dose, followed by month 1 and month 6.
  • Infants and children:  0.5 ml, 3 times. For primary hepatitis vaccine, the first dose is given immediately after the baby is born. Subsequent doses are given at 2, 3, and 4 months of age. Hepatitis B booster vaccine is given starting at 18 months of age.

Hepatitis B vaccine for children is a type of mandatory immunization. The hepatitis B vaccine is also intended for all adults without exception. However, it is recommended to do an HbsAg test first.

In addition, special attention in administering the hepatitis B vaccine needs to be given to high-risk groups, such as health workers, injecting drug users, someone who has more than 1 sexual partner and does not use a condom, sufferers of chronic kidney failure, liver disease, or someone with a weak immune system.

How to give hepatitis B vaccine 

Hepatitis B vaccine is injected into a muscle (intramuscular/IM). This vaccine injection is carried out by a doctor or medical officer under the supervision of a doctor in a health facility.

Vaccination will be postponed if during the examination you have a fever or it is known that you are suffering from an acute infectious disease. The hepatitis B vaccine will be given 3 times. Follow the vaccine injection schedule given by the doctor. Post-vaccination antibody titers can be checked 1–3 months after the last vaccination.

Hepatitis B vaccine interactions with other drugs

Inter-drug interaction effects can arise if the hepatitis B vaccine is used with certain drugs, including:

  • Decreased effectiveness of the hepatitis B vaccine when used with immunosuppressant drugs, such as belimumab, budesonide , or ciclosporin
  • Increased risk of bleeding when used with anticoagulant drugs , such as warfarin

Side Effects and Dangers of Hepatitis B Vaccine

Some common side effects that can occur after receiving the hepatitis B vaccine are:

  • Redness, pain, swelling, or a lump at the injection site
  • Headache
  • Fatigue

Check with your doctor if the side effects above don't go away or get worse. Immediately see a doctor if a drug allergic reaction appears which can be marked by the appearance of certain symptoms, such as an itchy rash, swollen eyes and lips, or difficulty breathing.

In addition, you need to see a doctor immediately if you experience rare serious side effects, such as:

  • Fever or swollen lymph nodes
  • Dizziness is so severe that you want to pass out
  • seizures
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