Hernia or prolapse is a lump that appears as a result of the organ in the body coming out through the weakened surrounding tissue. If left untreated, a hernia can cause blood flow to be blocked resulting in tissue death.

The connective tissue of the body should be strong enough to hold the organs in it so that they remain in their respective positions. However, there are some conditions that cause the connective tissue to weaken and cause the organ to protrude easily when receiving pressure.

How to deal with a hernia depends on the type. Doctors can prescribe drugs or perform operations.

Causes of Hernias

A hernia occurs when an organ protrudes through the weakened surrounding tissue. The causes can vary, including:

  • Aging or aging
  • Frequent lifting of heavy loads
  • Undergoing abdominal surgery
  • Overweight or obesity
  • Chronic cough
  • Constipation

In addition to the conditions above, there are factors that can increase the risk of a person suffering from a hernia or hernia, among others:

  • Born prematurely or having a low birth weight
  • Have a family that suffers from hernia
  • Experiencing increased pressure in the abdominal wall due to pregnancy
  • Have undergone hernia repair surgery

Symptoms of Hernia

Hernia symptoms can vary, depending on the type the patient has. The following are the types of hernia and accompanying symptoms:

1 . Inguinal hernia

Inguinal hernia is most often experienced by men. This condition occurs when the intestine or tissue in the abdominal cavity protrudes into the groin causing symptoms such as:

  • A lump in the groin affected by the hernia, but disappears when lying down
  • Pain in the groin, especially when coughing, exercising, or lifting heavy objects
  • Groin feels heavy or hot
  • Swelling and pain in the scrotum

2. Femoral hernia

A femoral hernia occurs when tissue or part of the intestine protrudes into the upper inner thigh. Femoral hernia is more often experienced by women who are overweight.

Symptoms of femoral hernia include:

  • Pain in the groin when standing, lifting heavy objects, coughing, or exercising
  • Stomachache
  • Nausea and vomiting

3. Umbilical hernia

An umbilical hernia occurs when part of the intestine or tissue protrudes through the muscle near the navel. This type of hernia is generally experienced by babies due to the hole in the umbilical cord that has not closed completely.

Symptoms of an umbilical hernia include:

  • The navel is reddish or purplish in color
  • Abdomen is round
  • Stomach feels full
  • Abdominal pain when pressed
  • Constipation
  • Fever
  • Vomiting

4. Hiatus hernia

Hiatus hernia or also known as diaphragmatic hernia occurs when part of the stomach protrudes into the chest cavity. The lump enters through the muscle that separates the chest cavity and the abdominal cavity (diaphragm).

Common symptoms of hiatus hernia are:

  • Heartburn _ _
  • Gastric acid disease ( GERD )
  • Difficulty swallowing ( dysphagia )
  • Shortness of breath
  • Vomit blood
  • Chest pain
  • Stomachache
  • Blackish stools

5. Incisional hernia

An incisional hernia occurs when there is tissue that protrudes through the surgical wound in the abdomen. Common symptoms are:

  • Constipation
  • A lump near the former surgical incision
  • Pain around the lump
  • Rapid heartbeat ( tachycardia )
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Fever

6. Epigastric hernia

An epigastric hernia occurs when there is tissue that protrudes through the upper abdominal wall, precisely from the heartburn to the navel. Symptoms of this condition include:

  • A lump above the navel
  • Pain around the hernial lump
  • Abdominal pain, especially when sneezing, coughing, or laughing

7. Spigelian hernia

A spigelian hernia occurs when part of the intestine protrudes from the spigelian fascia . Symptoms include:

  • A lump below or next to the navel
  • Abdominal pain that disappears or persists
  • Abdominal pain when exercising, lifting heavy objects, or when defecating
  • Constipation

8. Muscle hernia

A muscle hernia occurs when part of the muscle protrudes through the muscle's protective layer ( fascia ). Different from other types of hernia, this hernia most often occurs in the shin muscles of the leg as a result of injury, either due to exercising too hard or lifting weights.

Symptoms of muscle hernia include pain in the legs that lasts and can be accompanied by swelling. This swelling can disappear when resting and reappear when the muscles are tense.

When should you go to the doctor?

Check with a doctor if you experience hernia symptoms as mentioned above. Inspection and handling should be done immediately if:

  • Pain appears suddenly and feels severe
  • Hernia lumps change color to purple or black
  • The hernial lump is painful and hard
  • Difficulty defecating or defecating
  • Severe nausea and vomiting
  • Fever

Diagnosis of Hernia

The doctor will ask questions about the symptoms and history of the disease, followed by a physical examination of the patient. After that, the doctor will perform further examinations, such as:

  • USG , to see the inside of the abdominal and pelvic organs
  • X- ray , to examine the esophagus, stomach, and intestines
  • CT scan, to examine the organs inside the abdominal cavity in more detail
  • MRI, to detect the presence of tears in the abdominal muscles, although no lumps are visible
  • Endoscopy , to examine the inside of the esophagus and stomach

Hernia Treatment

After determining the diagnosis, the doctor will determine the correct treatment according to the type of hernia and the patient's condition. Some handling methods that can be done by the doctor are:

Giving medicines

Medicines can be given to patients with hiatus hernia. These drugs work to reduce stomach acid in order to relieve symptoms. Some of the types of drugs that are prescribed are:

  • Antacids
  • H-2 receptor antagonists
  • Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs)


Surgery to overcome the hernia can be done with open surgery or keyhole surgery ( laparoscopy ). There are several surgical methods that doctors can perform to deal with hernias, namely:

  • Herniotomy
    Herniotomy is performed by making an incision in the abdomen to remove the hernia sac.
  • Herniorraphy
    Similar to herniotomy, herniorraphy is performed by suturing the herniated area to strengthen the abdominal wall.
  • Hernioplasty
    In hernioplasty, the doctor will use a synthetic mesh to cover the hole where the hernia exits.

Complications of Hernia

Hernias that are not treated immediately will grow and press on the surrounding tissue. This condition can cause complications in the form of:

  • Incarcerated
    hernia An incarcerated hernia is a condition when the intestine gets stuck in the abdominal wall causing severe pain, nausea, vomiting, and difficulty defecating.
  • Strangulata
    hernia Strangulata hernia is a condition when blood flow to the intestine is blocked and causes tissue death.

Hernia prevention

The following are efforts that can be made to prevent the occurrence of hernias:

  • Stop smoking
  • Exercise regularly
  • Maintain an ideal weight
  • Consume healthy, nutritious and balanced food
  • Increase fiber intake to prevent constipation
  • Do not lift weights beyond your ability, including weight lifting
  • Be careful when lifting heavy objects
  • Check yourself with a doctor if you have a cough that does not go away
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