Hydrochlorothiazide is a drug to lower blood pressure in hypertensive patients . This drug can also be used to overcome edema , which is the accumulation of fluid in the body's tissues , for example due to heart failure or cirrhosis of the liver .

Hydrochlorothiazide belongs to the thiazide diuretic class of drugs. This drug works by helping the kidneys to remove excess fluid and salt through urine. That way, edema can be reduced and blood pressure can be lowered.

Hydrochlorothiazide can be consumed as a single drug or combined with other drugs. Be aware that hydrochlorothiazide helps control high blood pressure, but does not cure it. Therefore, hypertensive patients need to consume this drug routinely for a long time.

Brand names of hydrochlorothiazide: Bisovell Plus, Blopress Plus 16, Coaprovel, Co-Irvell, Co-Telsaril, Co-Diovan, Dexacap Plus, Hapsen Plus, Hydrochlorothiazide, Irtan Plus, Lodoz, Lorinid Mite, Micardis Plus, Olmetec Plus, and Tenazide .

What is Hydrochlorothiazide

Group Prescription drugs
Category Thiazide diuretics
Benefits Lowers blood pressure in hypertension and reduces edema.
Consumed by Adults and children

Hydrochlorothiazide for pregnant and lactating women

Category B: Studies on experimental animals do not show any risk to the fetus, but there are no controlled studies in pregnant women.

Hydrochlorothiazide is absorbed into breast milk. If you are breastfeeding, do not use this medicine without first consulting your doctor.

Drug form Tablets and caplets

Warnings Before Consuming Hydrochlorothiazide

Here are the things you need to pay attention to before undergoing treatment with hydrochlorothiazide:

  • Do not take hydrochlorothiazide if you are allergic to this drug or sulfa drugs . Always tell your doctor about any allergies you have.
  • Do not take hydrochlorothiazide if you cannot urinate ( anuria ). Tell your doctor if you feel a decrease in the frequency of urination or the amount of urine before taking hydrochlorothiazide.
  • Tell your doctor if you are or have suffered from glaucoma , kidney disease, liver disease, gout disease , parathyroid gland disorder, diabetes , asthma, or lupus .
  • Tell your doctor if you are or have ever experienced hypokalemia, hyponatremia, hypomagnesemia , hypercalcemia , high cholesterol , high uric acid, or low blood sugar ( hypoglycemia ).
  • Tell your doctor if you are experiencing diarrhea, vomiting, or other conditions that can trigger  dehydration , both before and while you are taking hydrochlorothiazide.
  • Do not consume alcohol while undergoing treatment with hydrochlorothiazide as it can cause dangerous side effects.
  • Avoid exposure to sunlight for too long and use sunscreen when active during the day, because hydrochlorothiazide can make the skin more sensitive to sunlight.
  • Do not immediately do activities that require alertness, such as driving a vehicle or operating heavy machinery after consuming hydrochlorothiazide, because this drug can cause dizziness .
  • Tell your doctor if you are pregnant, breastfeeding, or planning to become pregnant.
  • Tell your doctor if you are using other drugs, including supplements and herbal products, to anticipate drug interactions.
  • See your doctor immediately if you experience a drug allergic reaction , serious side effect, or overdose after taking hydrochlorothiazide.

Dosage and Administration of Hydrochlorothiazide

The dose of aminophylline can be different for each patient. The doctor will give the dose of aminophylline according to the patient's age and condition. In children, the dose of aminophylline will be adjusted according to the patient's body weight (BB).

The following is a general dose of hydrochlorothiazide based on the condition being treated:

Condition: Edema

  • Adults: 25–100 mg per day, can be divided into 1–2 consumption schedules. The maximum dose is 200 mg per day. Medicines can be consumed once every 2 days or 3-5 times a week.
  • Children aged 2-12 years : 1-2 mg/kgBB per day, can be divided into 1-2 consumption schedules Maximum dose 100 mg per day.
  • Children aged < 2 years : 1–2 mg/kgBB per day, can be divided into 1–2 consumption schedules. The maximum dose is 37.5 mg per day.
  • Children aged <6 months: 3 mg/kgBB per day, divided into 2 consumption schedules.
  • Elderly: 12.5 mg per day. The dose can be increased by 12.5 mg if necessary.

Condition: Hypertension

  • Adults: 12.5 mg per day, as a single drug or combined with other antihypertensive drugs. The dose can be increased to 50 mg per day according to the patient's needs. The maximum dose is 100 mg per day
  • Children aged 2-12 years : 1-2 mg/kgBW per day as a single dose or divided into 2 consumption schedules. The maximum dose is 100 mg per day.
  • Children aged < 2 years : 1–2 mg/kgBW per day as a single dose or divided into 2 consumption schedules. The maximum dose is 37.5 mg per day.
  • Children aged <6 months: 3 mg/kgBW per day divided into 2 consumption schedules.
  • Elderly: 12.5 mg per day. The dose can be increased by 12.5 mg if necessary.

How to Consume Hydrochlorothiazide Correctly

Always follow the doctor 's advice and read the information on the hydrochlorothiazide packaging before starting to consume it. Do not increase or decrease the dose without consulting a doctor.

Hydrochlorothiazide can be consumed before or after meals. Swallow hydrochlorothiazide tablets or caplets with water. It is recommended to consume this medicine at least 4 hours before bed or in the morning, because hydrochlorothiazide can increase the frequency of urination.

If you are currently using a cholesterol-lowering drug of the bile acid sequestrant group, such as cholestyramine or colestipol , use the drug with a 4-hour pause before or after consuming hydrochlorothiazide.

The use of hydrochlorothiazide must be accompanied by the application of a healthy lifestyle, such as a low-salt  and low-fat diet,  exercising regularly for at least 30 minutes every day, and not smoking and not consuming alcoholic beverages.

If you are taking hydrochlorothiazide to reduce edema, ask your doctor about your daily fluid intake. The doctor may limit your fluid intake for some time.

If you forget to take hydrochlorothiazide, take it immediately if it is not close to the next medication schedule. When it is close, ignore the missed dose and do not double the dose the next time you take the medicine.

During treatment with hydrochlorothiazide, your doctor may ask you to do routine examinations to monitor your condition and your body's response to the medicine. Follow every control schedule that has been determined by the doctor.

One of the side effects of hydrochlorothiazide is dizziness, always be careful when walking and do not rush to stand after you consume hydrochlorothiazide.

Store hydrochlorothiazide in a cool place and away from sunlight, and keep the medicine out of the reach of children.

Interactions of Hydrochlorothiazide with Other Drugs

Using hydrochlorothiazide together with other drugs can cause the following interaction effects:

  • Increased risk of sunburn if used together with aminolevulinic acid
  • Increased risk of irregular heartbeat if used with amiodarone or cisapride
  • Increased risk of dangerous side effects from lithium drugs
  • Increased risk of hypokalemia if used with digoxin , astemizole, sotalol, terfenadine , or pimozide
  • Decreased absorption of hydrochlorothiazide if taken together with a bile acid sequestrant
  • Increased risk of orthostatic hypotension if used with barbiturates or opioids
  • Decreased effectiveness of hydrocholorothiazide if used with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ( NSAIDs )
  • Increased effectiveness of muscle relaxant drugs , such as tubocurarine

Side Effects and Dangers of Hydrochlorothiazide

Side effects that may appear after consuming hydrochlorothiazide are:

  • Turn
  • Headache
  • The frequency of urination is more frequent
  • Heartburn
  • Loss of appetite
  • Hair loss

Check with a doctor if the above side effects do not subside or worsen. Immediately go to the nearest doctor or hospital if an allergic reaction to the drug appears, which can be marked by an itchy skin rash, swelling of the lips or eyelids, or difficulty breathing.

In addition, you should also see a doctor immediately if you experience signs of dehydration, such as extreme thirst, dry mouth, reduced urination, irregular heartbeat, confusion, or more serious side effects, namely:

  • Visual disturbances or eye pain
  • Head feels light as if fainting
  • The body feels very tired
  • Abdominal pain that spreads to the back
  • Easy bruising or bleeding
  • Shortness of breath
  • Jaundice
  • Pale skin, bleeding from the nose, mouth, vagina, or anus
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