Farsightedness or hypermetropia is impaired vision at a near distance. In hypermetropic patients, objects that are far away are clearly visible , but objects that are near are blurred or blurry.
Infants and young children tend to be hypermetropic, but their vision is not blurry. This condition is nothing to worry about, because the vision will be normal as the eye organs develop.
Hypermetropia is different from presbyopia or old eyes, although these two types of eye refractive disorders make it difficult for sufferers to see close objects.
Hypermetropia occurs due to the abnormal shape of the cornea or lens of the eye, while presbyopia is caused by the muscles around the lens becoming stiff due to aging.
Causes of Hypermetropia
Hypermetropia occurs when light entering the eye is not focused where it should be (the retina), but is focused behind it. This is caused by the eyeball being too short. It could also be due to an abnormal shape of the cornea or eye lens.
There are several factors that can increase a person's risk of suffering from hypermetropia, namely:
- Have parents who suffer from hypermetropia
- Over 40 years old
- Suffering from diabetes , cancer around the eyes, disorders of the blood vessels in the retina, or small eye syndrome ( microphthalmia )
Patients with hypermetropia will experience the following symptoms:
- Vision is out of focus when looking at close objects
- Have to squint to see things more clearly
- Eyes feel tight, sore or burn
- Tired eyes or headaches after looking at close range for a long time, for example writing, reading or using a computer
When to see a doctor
Someone who is at high risk of suffering from eye diseases, such as glaucoma , is recommended to undergo routine eye examinations every 1 or 2 years from the age of 40.
Routine eye examinations are also recommended for infants and children and adults who do not have eye problems. Examinations can be started at the age of 6 months, 3 years, and every 1 or 2 years since entering school age.
Immediately consult an eye doctor if the symptoms of hypermetropia interfere with activities. Eye examination should be done immediately if vision is suddenly disturbed.
Doctors can diagnose hypermetropia through a visual acuity test. In a visual acuity test, a person will be asked to read letters of varying sizes from different distances.
Apart from being used to detect hypermetropia, a visual acuity test can also tell doctors whether a patient has myopia , astigmatism, or presbyopia .
If the visual acuity test results show that the patient is farsighted, the doctor will perform a retinoscopy examination to see the retina of the eye. The doctor will use special eye drops to dilate the patient's pupils to make it easier to examine the inside of the eye.
Hypermetropia Treatment _
Treatment for hypermetropia or farsightedness aims to help focus light onto the retina. Treatment can be done through the following methods:
Use of glasses or contact lenses
Glasses and contact lenses are the simplest way to treat hypermetropia. The way these two aids work is by focusing light on the retina so that vision becomes clearer.
So that the type and size are suitable and safe, consult your doctor first before using therapeutic glasses or contact lenses. Especially for contact lens users, ask your doctor how to store and care for contact lenses .
Although it is more often used to treat nearsightedness, laser surgery can also correct mild to moderate hypermetropia. There are three types of laser surgery that can be performed to reshape the cornea so that the patient's vision is better, namely:
- Laser -assisted in situ keratomil e usis ( LASIK )
- Laser -assisted sub epithelial keratectomy (LASEK)
- Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK)
All of the above laser surgeries are permanent, thereby releasing sufferers from dependence on glasses or contact lenses. However, before choosing to undergo surgery, talk to your doctor first about the possible complications that can arise after surgery.
How to Take Care of Eye Health
Although hypermetropia cannot be prevented, there are several things that can be done to help maintain healthy eyes and vision, namely:
- Get your eyes checked regularly
- Eat a balanced nutritional diet
- Use good lighting
- Use sunglasses when exposed to direct sunlight
- Use the right glasses
- Wear eye protection when doing certain activities such as painting, cutting grass, or when using chemical products
- Controlling blood sugar levels and blood pressure, if suffering from hypertension or diabetes
- Quit smoking
Poor vision due to hypermetropia can result in sufferers experiencing injury, especially when driving or operating heavy machinery. Hypermetropia can also cause the following conditions if not treated quickly:
- Crossed eyes , or not parallel to the position of the two eyes
- Tired eyes , the result of frequent squinting to maintain focus
- Lazy eye , where one eye is more dominant than the other