H i pospadia is a disorder that causes the location of the urethra in male babies to be abnormal. This condition is a congenital abnormality from birth.

Under normal conditions, the urethra is located right at the tip of the penis. However, in babies with hypospadias, the urethra is on the underside of the penis. If left untreated, hypospadias sufferers can have difficulty urinating or having sex as adults.

Hypospadias Causes and Risk Factors

Hypospadias is caused by a developmental disorder of the urinary tract (urethra) and foreskin of the penis in the womb. The cause of this condition is not known with certainty. However, there are a number of factors that are thought to increase the risk of a child experiencing hypospadias, including the mother:

  • Conceive at the age of 35 and over
  • Suffering from obesity and diabetes while pregnant
  • Undergoing hormone therapy to stimulate pregnancy
  • Exposure to cigarette smoke or pesticides while pregnant

Children from families who have experienced hypospadias or who were born prematurely are also more at risk of experiencing hypospadias.

Symptoms of Hypospadias

The condition of hypospadias in each patient can be different. In most cases, the urethra is located on the underside of the glans penis, while in some cases it is on the underside of the shaft. The urethra can also be in the scrotum (testicles), but this condition is rare.

As a result of the abnormal location of the urinary opening, babies with hypospadias will experience the following symptoms:

  • Abnormal splashing of urine when urinating
  • The foreskin only covers the top of the head of the penis
  • The shape of the penis is curved downwards

When to go to the doctor

Hypospadias that is not treated can cause complications that reduce the sufferer's quality of life. Therefore, immediately see a doctor if you notice a number of the above symptoms in a child, especially the abnormal position of the urethral opening. The earlier treatment is given, the better results can be achieved.

Diagnosis of Hypospadias

Hypospadias can be known through physical examination after the baby is born without having to carry out additional examinations. However, in severe hypospadias, genetic testing and scans are needed to rule out other abnormalities in the baby's genitals.

Hypospadias Treatment

If the urethral opening is too close to where it should be and the penis is not curved, treatment may not be necessary. However, if the location of the urethra is far from its normal position, the patient needs to undergo surgery. Ideally, surgery is performed when the baby is 6 to 12 months old.

The aim of the surgery is to put the urethral opening into a normal position and to correct the curvature of the penis. Depending on the severity, the operation may be performed more than once.

In most cases, the function of the child's penis will return to normal after surgery. However, routine control is needed after surgery to ensure this.

It is important to remember, do not circumcise a child with hypospadias before surgery. The surgeon may need a graft of the foreskin to create a new opening for the urethra.

Hypospadias complications

Hypospadias can cause problems when urinating and sexual activity disorders in adulthood. In addition, children with hypospadias who are not treated can experience complications in the form of:

  • Difficulty learning to urinate
  • Deformity of the penis during erection
  • Ejaculation disorders

Erectile deformities of the penis and impaired ejaculation can make it more difficult for those with hypospadias to have children.

Hypospadias Prevention

Pregnant women can reduce the risk of hypospadias in the fetus by making the following simple efforts:

  • Do not smoke and avoid consuming alcoholic beverages.
  • Avoid jobs that are at risk of exposure to pesticides.
  • Take folic acid supplements as directed by your obstetrician.
  • Maintain ideal body weight.
  • Routinely go to the obstetrician to check for pregnancy.

Couples who have risk factors for hypospadias and are planning a pregnancy should consult an obstetrician. This aims to control risk factors as well as possible before becoming pregnant.

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