Indinavir is a drug to treat HIV or human immunodeficiency virus infection. Indinavir is usually combined with other HIV drugs, such as ritonavir.
Indinavir is an antiviral that works by inhibiting protease, which is an enzyme that HIV needs to reproduce itself. With this drug, the amount of virus in the blood will go down and the immune system can work better.
It should be noted that indinavir cannot cure HIV , but it can reduce the risk of complications from HIV infection, such as AIDS, severe infections, and certain cancers. In addition, coupled with proper preventive measures, this drug can also reduce the risk of transmitting HIV to other people.
What is Indinavir
Protease inhibitor antivirals
Controlling HIV infection
Adults and children
Indinavir for pregnant and lactating women
Category C : Animal studies have shown an adverse effect on the fetus, but there have been no controlled studies in pregnant women.
Drugs should only be used if the expected benefit outweighs the risk to the fetus.
It is not known whether Indinavir is absorbed into breast milk or not. If you are breastfeeding, do not use this medication without telling your doctor.
Precautions Before Taking Indinavir
Before taking indinavir, you need to pay attention to the following things:
- Do not take indinavir if you are allergic to this drug. Tell your doctor about any history of allergies you have.
- Tell your doctor if you have or currently have high blood cholesterol or triglyceride levels, diabetes , hemophilia , coronary heart disease , heart attack, liver disease, or kidney disease, including kidney stones.
- Tell your doctor if you are taking indinavir if you are having surgery, including dental surgery.
- Tell your doctor if you are taking any other medications, including supplements or herbal products.
- Tell your doctor if you are pregnant, breastfeeding or planning a pregnancy.
- See a doctor immediately if you have an allergic drug reaction or serious side effects after taking indinavir.
Dosage and Rules for Use of Indinavir
Indinavir should only be taken as directed by a doctor. The following are common dosages for indinavir:
Adult: 800 mg every 8 hours.
If treatment is combined with ritonavir, the dose of indinavir is 800 mg every 12 hours, while ritonavir is 100–200 mg every 12 hours.
- Children 4–17 years: 500 mg/m² every 8 hours. Maximum dose of 800 mg every 8 hours.
In HIV patients who suffer from hepatic impairment, the dose of indinavir is 600 mg every 8 hours.
How to Take Indinavir Properly
Follow the doctor's recommendations and read the information printed on the drug packaging before taking indinavir. Do not reduce, increase, or stop medication without consulting a doctor first.
Indinavir can be taken on an empty stomach, ie 1 hour before or 2 hours after eating. However, if this method causes stomach upset, indinavir can be taken with drinks or snacks, such as juice, tea, coffee and low-fat milk.
Swallow the capsule whole with the help of a glass of water. Do not chew or crush the capsule. Try to take indinavir at the same time every day for maximum treatment.
If you forget to take indinavir, it is recommended to drink it immediately if the break with the next consumption schedule is not too close. If it is close, skip the dose and do not double the next dose.
While undergoing treatment with indinavir, you are advised to increase your consumption of water, at least 1.5 liters a day, to reduce the risk of kidney stones.
Make sure to carry out the control according to the schedule given by the doctor. While undergoing treatment with indinavir, you may be asked to regularly check your HIV virus level, CD4 count, cholesterol test, liver function test, blood sugar test, complete blood count, and urine test.
To avoid transmission of HIV infection , the use of indinavir should be accompanied by preventive measures, such as using condoms during sexual intercourse or not using drugs (especially with needles).
Store indinavir in a dry place away from direct sunlight. Keep this drug out of reach of children.
Indinavir Interactions with Other Drugs
The following are interaction effects that can occur if indinavir is used together with certain drugs:
- Increased risk of developing hypotension when used with alfuzosin
- Increased risk of arrhythmias when used with amiodarone, pimozide or cisapride
- Increased risk of side effects of dihydroergonovine, ergonovine, or ergotamine drugs
- Increased risk of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis when used with lovastatin or simvastatin
- Increased risk of drowziness or decreased respiratory function when used with alprazolam , midazolam or triazolam
- Increased risk of side effects, such as dizziness, low blood pressure, or vision problems, when used with sildenafil or vardenafil
- Increased risk of developing hyperbilirubinemia when used with atazanavir
- Elevated levels of astemizole, terfenadine , or luracidone
- Decreased levels of indinavir when used with rifampicin , phenobarbital, phenytoin, carbamazepine , or rifabutin
- Increased levels of indinavir when used with itraconazole, ketoconazole or delavirdine
- Increased risk of developing kidney stones when used with ritonavir
- Increased levels of calcium antagonist drugs , ciclosporin, tacrolimus, or trazodone
Tell your doctor about all the medicines you are currently taking. The doctor may adjust the dose of indinavir and/or these drugs to avoid dangerous drug interactions.
Indinavir Side Effects and Dangers
The following are side effects that may occur after taking indinavir:
- Stomach ache
- Lost appetite
- Back pain
- The sense of taste changes
- Rash, itching and dry skin
- Flu symptoms, such as stuffy nose, sneezing, and sore throat
- Weight gain
- Changes in body shape due to changes in fat distribution, for example fat accumulates more in the upper back, neck or stomach
Consult a doctor if the side effects above do not subside immediately or get worse. You need to see a doctor immediately if you experience an allergic drug reaction or more serious side effects, such as:
- Weight loss drastically
- Pale, unusually tired
- Muscle and joint pain that doesn't get better
- Weakness in the muscles
- Numbness or tingling in the hands, feet or legs
- Blurred vision
- The skin and eyes are yellowish, the urine is dark
- Symptoms of infection, such as fever, chills, swollen lymph nodes , difficulty breathing, and cough
- Symptoms of hyperglycemia , such as feeling very thirsty, hungry, and dry mouth
- Symptoms of kidney stones , such as difficult and painful urination, low back pain that radiates to the groin area, urine containing blood