Losartan is a drug to lower blood pressure in  people with hypertension. This medication is also used to treat heart failure and kidney damage caused by diabetes (diabetic nephropathy).

Losartan belongs to the class of drugs called angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). This drug works by blocking angiotensin II receptors so that previously narrowed blood vessels can widen. That way, it will be easier for the heart to pump blood and blood pressure will drop.

Losartan trademarks:  Acetensa, Angioten, Cozaar, Insaar, Losartan Potassium, Losargard, Lifezar, Santesar

What is Losartan

class Prescription drug
Category Angiotensin II receptor blockers ( ARBs )
Benefit Overcome hypertension, heart failure, and
Consumed by Adults and children aged ≥ 6 years
Losartan for pregnant and lactating women Category D:  There is evidence that the ingredients pose a risk to the human fetus, but the benefits may outweigh the risks, for example in dealing with a life-threatening situation. It is not known whether losartan passes into breast milk or not. If you are breastfeeding, do not use this medicine without consulting your doctor first.
Drug form Tablets and caplets

Precautions Before Taking Losartan

Losartan should only be used as prescribed by a doctor. Here are some things you need to pay attention to before taking losartan:

  • Do not use losartan if you are allergic to this drug. Tell your doctor about any history of drug allergies you have.
  • Tell your doctor if you have diabetes and are taking aliskiren . Losartan should not be used together with these medications.
  • Tell your doctor if you are pregnant, may become pregnant, breastfeeding or planning a pregnancy. Use effective birth control to prevent pregnancy while using this medicine.
  • Do not give losartan to children under 6 years of age, unless directed by a doctor.
  • Do not immediately drive a vehicle or do activities that require alertness while being treated with losartan, because this drug can cause dizziness.
  • Do not consume alcoholic beverages while taking losartan, as this can increase the risk of side effects. Tell your doctor if you have difficulty reducing alcohol consumption.
  • Tell your doctor if you have had or currently have liver disease, angioedema , kidney disease, hypotension, heart valve disorders , heart failure, or electrolyte disturbances, especially hyperkalemia
  • Tell your doctor if you have any conditions that increase your risk of dehydration , such as vomiting and diarrhea, both before and while you are taking losartan.
  • Tell your doctor if you are on a low salt diet or have recently had a kidney transplant.
  • Consult your doctor about using losartan in the elderly and children to avoid the risk of serious side effects.
  • Tell your doctor if you are taking other medications, including supplements and herbal products, to prevent drug interactions.
  • Tell your doctor that you are taking losartan before having surgery or any medical procedure, including dental surgery.
  • Avoid exposure to the sun for too long while taking losartan, because this drug can cause the skin to get sunburned more easily . Use sunscreen when doing outdoor activities during the day.
  • Immediately see a doctor if you have an allergic drug reaction, more serious side effects, or an overdose, after taking losartan.

Dosage and Rules for Use Losartan

The losartan dosage given by the doctor depends on the patient's condition and age. Here is the explanation:

Condition: Hypertension

  • Adult: 50 mg daily. Dosage may be increased to 100 mg once daily according to patient response. For patients receiving diuretic therapy, the initial dose is 25 mg daily.
  • Children aged 6–18 years, weighing 21–50 kg: 0.7 mg/kg, once a day. The maximum dose is 50 mg per day.
  • Children aged 6 – 18 years weighing > 50 kg: 50 mg, once a day. Dosage can be increased up to 100 mg per day.
  • Elderly >75 years : 25 mg each

Condition: Diabetic nephropathy

  • Adult: initially 50 mg per dose may be increased to 100 mg daily, depending on the patient's blood pressure.
  • Elderly >75 years : 25 mg per day.

Condition: Heart failure

  • Adult: initially 12.5 mg per dose may be increased weekly to a maximum of 150 mg daily.
  • Elderly >75 years : 25 mg per day.

How to Take Losartan Properly

Follow the doctor 's advice and read the instructions on the package before taking losartan. Do not increase or decrease your dose without consulting your doctor.

Take losartan regularly at the same time each day. This medicine can be taken before or after meals. Swallow losartan tablets or caplets whole with the help of a glass of water.

If you forget to take losartan, take this medicine immediately if it is not close to the next consumption schedule. If it is close, ignore the missed dose and do not double the next dose.

Take control according to the schedule given by the doctor so that the condition and response to therapy can be monitored. During your treatment with losartan, you may be asked to have your blood, blood pressure, and kidney function checked regularly.

To help control blood pressure, you also need to maintain an ideal body weight, exercise diligently, don't smoke, and limit consumption of foods that are high in salt and high in fat.

Store losartan at room temperature and protected from direct sunlight, and keep it out of reach of children.

Losartan Interactions with Other Drugs

The following are some interactions that may occur when losartan is used with other medicines:

  • Increased risk of developing hypotension , hyperkalemia and impaired renal function when used with ACE inhibitors or aliskiren
  • Increased risk of developing hypotension with antipsychotic drugs , such as haloperidol
  • Decreased effectiveness of losartan when used with rifampicin and fluconazole
  • Increased levels of potassium in the body (hyperkalemia) when used with potassium-sparing diuretic drugs, potassium supplements, or heparin
  • Increased risk of lithium poisoning
  • Increased risk of developing kidney disorders and decreased effectiveness of losartan when used with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ( NSAIDs )
  • Increased blood pressure lowering effect when used with other antihypertensive drugs

Losartan Side Effects and Dangers

Some of the side effects that can occur after consuming losartan are:

  • Drowsiness
  • Headaches, dizziness, or migraines
  • Abdominal pain or diarrhea
  • Constipation
  • Cold or flu symptoms, such as stuffy nose, sneezing, sore throat, or fever
  • Back pain
  • Joint and muscle pain
  • Dry cough
  • Tired or lethargic
  • Insomnia

Check with your doctor if the complaints mentioned above do not go away or get worse. Immediately see a doctor if you experience a drug allergic reaction which can be marked by difficulty breathing, swelling of the lips and eyelids, or experience more serious side effects, such as:

  • Dizziness that is so severe that you feel like fainting
  • Burning feeling when urinating
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Mood swings
  • Shortness of breath, chest pain
  • Hyperkalemia , which is characterized by chest pain, irregular heartbeat, muscle weakness, tingling, or paralysis
  • Kidney disorders, which are characterized by swelling in the hands, legs or feet, decreased amount of urine, or pain when urinating
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