Mannitol or mannitol is an intravenous fluid  that is used to reduce pressure in the brain (intracranial pressure ), pressure in the eyeball (intraocular pressure ), and swelling of the brain ( cerebral edema). This medicine is available in the form of an infusion and should only be given by a doctor.

Mannitol is included in the osmotic diuretic class of drugs which works by increasing the amount of fluid to be excreted by the kidneys, as well as inhibiting the re-absorption of fluids by the kidneys. This infusion is also used to increase the amount of urine in oliguric patients who have not yet experienced permanent renal failure.

Mannitol trademarks:  Basol M20, M-20 Infusion, Mannitol, Osmol, Otsu – Mannitol 20

What is Mannitol

class Prescription drug
Category osmotic diuretic
Benefit Reducing intracranial pressure , intraocular, reducing cerebral edema , and treating oliguria
Used by Adults and children
Mannitol for pregnant and lactating women Category C: Animal studies have shown an adverse effect on the fetus, but there have been no controlled studies in pregnant women. Drugs should only be used if the expected benefit outweighs the risk to the fetus. It is not yet known whether mannitol can be absorbed into breast milk or not. If you are breastfeeding, do not use this medicine without consulting your doctor first.
Form infusion

Warning Before Using Mannitol

Mannitol should only be used as prescribed by a doctor. The following are things you need to pay attention to before using mannitol:

  • Tell your doctor about any history of allergies you have. Mannitol should not be used by patients who are allergic to this drug.
  • Tell your doctor if you have or have had kidney disease , pulmonary edema, heart failure , severe dehydration, electrolyte imbalance , bleeding in the brain, or inability to urinate ( anuria ).
  • Tell your doctor if you are pregnant, breastfeeding or planning a pregnancy.
  • Tell your doctor if you are taking any other medicines, including supplements or herbal products.
  • See your doctor immediately if you experience a drug allergic reaction, serious side effects, or overdose, after using mannitol.

Dosage and Rules for Using Mannitol

Mannitol infusion will be given by a doctor or medical officer under the supervision of a doctor. The doctor will determine the dosage and duration of treatment according to the patient's age, condition, and body's response to the drug.

The following are mannitol dosages based on their intended use:

Goal: Reduce intracranial pressure, intraocular, or cerebral edema

  • Adult: 1.5–2 gram/kgBB. This medication is given by infusion into a vein (intravenously/IV) for 30–60 minutes.

Purpose: Treating the oliguric phase in patients with renal failure

  • Adult: 50–200 grams, given over 24 hours. The rate of infusion will be adjusted according to the amount of urine released per hour.
  • Children: 0.25–2 gram/kgBB.

How to Use Mannitol Properly

Injectable mannitol will be given by  a doctor  or medical officer under the supervision of a doctor. Mannitol liquid will be injected into a vein (intravenously/IV) through a slow infusion for at least 30 minutes.

While undergoing treatment with mannitol, follow the recommendations given by the doctor. The doctor will periodically check electrolyte levels, kidney function, heart function to see the effectiveness of the therapy.

Interactions of Mannitol with Other Drugs

There are several drug interaction effects that can occur if mannitol is used together with other drugs, including:

  • Increased risk of impaired kidney function when used with  ciclosporin , aminoglycoside antibiotic drugs , or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as aspirin or naproxen
  • Increased risk of electrolyte disturbances when used with digoxin
  • Decreased effectiveness of anticoagulant drugs
  • Increased effectiveness of tubocurarine and other muscle relaxants

Side Effects and Dangers of Mannitol

There are several side effects that can occur after using mannitol, including:

  • Fever , chills, headache, runny nose
  • Urinating becomes more frequent
  • Dizziness or blurred vision
  • Nausea or vomiting

Check with your doctor if the side effects above don't go away. Immediately see a doctor if a drug allergic reaction appears which can be marked by the appearance of an itchy rash on the skin, swollen eyelids and lips, or difficulty breathing.

In addition, you should also see a doctor immediately if you experience more serious side effects, such as:

  • Signs of dehydration appear, such as thirst, dry skin, hot skin, or infrequent urination
  • There are signs of electrolyte disturbances, such as confusion, vomiting , constipation, leg cramps, bone pain, irregular heartbeat, muscle aches , or weakness
  • Swelling in the feet, hands and weight increased dramatically
  • Pain, bruising, irritation, or skin changes at the injection site
  • Little or no urine output
  • Chest pain or fast heart rate
  • Headache or feeling like fainting
  • seizures
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