Monkey Pox

Monkey Pox

Monkeypox is a viral infection characterized by purulent nodules on the skin. Monkeypox or monkeypox first appeared in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 1970.

At first, monkeypox had symptoms similar to chickenpox, namely watery nodules. As the disease progresses, watery nodules turn festering and cause lumps in the neck, armpits or groin due to swollen lymph nodes.

Monkeypox is a disease that can be passed from person to person, but its main source is rodents and primates, such as infected mice, monkeys or squirrels.

Causes of Monkey Pox

Monkeypox is caused by the monkeypox virus , which is a virus that belongs to the Orthopoxvirus group . This virus is initially transmitted from animals to humans through the scratch or bite of an animal, such as a squirrel, monkey or mouse, which is infected with the monkeypox virus .

Monkeypox virus transmission can also occur through direct contact with body fluids of infected animals.

Monkeypox is spread between humans through splashes of saliva that enter through the eyes, mouth, nose, or wounds on the skin. Transmission can also occur through contaminated objects, such as the patient's clothing. However, human-to-human transmission requires prolonged contact.

Monkey Pox Symptoms

Symptoms of monkeypox will appear 5-21 days after the sufferer is infected with the monkeypox virus . The early symptoms of monkeypox are:

  • Fever
  • Tired or weak
  • Shivering
  • Headache
  • Muscle ache
  • Swollen lymph nodes , which are characterized by lumps in the neck, armpit, or groin

Early symptoms of monkeypox can last 1–3 days or more. After that, the rash will appear on the face and spread to other parts of the body, such as arms or legs.

The rash that appears will develop from a nodule filled with fluid to filled with pus, then break and crust, then cause ulcers on the surface of the skin.

When to see a doctor

Immediately consult a doctor if you feel symptoms such as chickenpox, which appears watery nodules, especially if:

  • The contents of the nodule turn into pus
  • There is contact with monkeys or squirrels
  • Just traveled to a country where there are a lot of monkeypox cases

Monkey Pox Diagnosis

In the early stages of the examination, the doctor will check for symptoms and the type of rash that appears. The doctor will also ask for a travel history from countries that have cases of monkeypox.

The appearance of a rash alone does not necessarily indicate monkeypox. Therefore, the doctor will carry out further tests to see the presence of the virus in the body, namely through:

  • Blood test
  • Throat swab test
  • Skin biopsy, by taking a sample of skin tissue for examination with a microscope

Monkeypox Treatment

Until now, there is no treatment for monkeypox. This disease generally only causes mild symptoms and can heal by itself in 2-4 weeks. While the spread of monkeypox can be prevented with smallpox vaccine ( smallpox ).

Meanwhile, some countries use tecovirimat to treat monkeypox. Tecovirimat works by preventing the monkeypox virus from multiplying and spreading to other people. However, the use of this drug is still limited to adults weighing 40 kg and children weighing 13 kg.

Please note, monkeypox sufferers need to get treatment in an isolation room to get monitoring from a doctor and prevent the spread of the disease.

Complications of Monkey Pox

Monkeypox has a high cure rate. Although rare, this disease can still cause complications.

The risk of severe complications of monkeypox is higher in children, people with weak immune systems, people who have not been vaccinated, and people who live in endemic countries or areas with poor sanitation.

Complications that can occur due to monkeypox are:

  • Bacterial infection
  • Lung infection
  • Inflammation of the brain (encephalitis)
  • Corneal infection ( keratitis )

Monkey Pox Prevention

The main prevention of monkeypox is to avoid direct contact with primates and rodents, such as monkeys and squirrels, or people who are infected. Some other preventive steps that can be taken are:

  • Diligently wash hands with soap and water or hand sanitizer , especially before cooking or processing food, before eating, before touching nose or eyes, and before cleaning wounds.
  • Avoid sharing the use of eating utensils with others, also do not share the same items with people who are infected with monkeypox
  • Avoid contact with wild animals or consuming their meat
  • Cooking food, especially meat, until done

In order to prevent transmission of monkeypox, doctors will give the smallpox vaccine , especially to medical workers who treat monkeypox patients. Apart from the smallpox vaccine , medical workers also need to wear personal protective equipment when treating patients.

If you have a pet that is suspected of being infected with the monkeypox virus, contact your veterinarian immediately and do not allow the animal to roam. It is important to remember, use gloves and a mask before contact with the pet.

Some of the symptoms of monkey pox to watch out for in animals are:

  • Fever
  • Cough
  • Red eye
  • Runny nose
  • Loss of appetite
  • Rash or red spots on the skin
  • Hair loss
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