Morning Sickness

Morning Sickness

Morning sickness is nausea and vomiting that occurs during pregnancy. Even though it is called morning sickness , this condition does not only occur in the morning, but also in the afternoon, evening or at night.

Most pregnant women experience morning sickness in the first trimester of pregnancy. Even though it doesn't harm the mother and fetus, morning sickness can affect daily activities. In some women, morning sickness with severe symptoms can even progress to  hyperemesis gravidarium .

Hyperemesis gravidarum is severe nausea and vomiting experienced by pregnant women. This condition is prone to causing dehydration and drastic weight loss. If pregnant women experience hyperemesis gravidarum, intensive treatment needs to be done to prevent complications.

Causes of Morning Sickness

The exact cause of morning sickness is not known . However, hormonal changes in the early trimester of pregnancy are thought to play a role in triggering this condition.

Apart from hormonal changes, there are several factors that can increase the risk of pregnant women experiencing morning sickness , including:

  • Pregnant or pregnant first child
  • Pregnant with twins
  • Experiencing morning sickness in previous pregnancies
  • Have a family member who experienced morning sickness during pregnancy
  • Often experience motion sickness

Apart from these factors, morning sickness can also be caused by other diseases and conditions, such as stress , obesity, liver disease , and thyroid gland disorders.

Symptoms of Morning Sickness

The main symptoms of morning sickness are nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. Even though it occurs more often in the morning, there are also pregnant women who complain of nausea and vomiting due to morning sickness at night .

These symptoms are often triggered by several things, for example certain smells, spicy foods, or hot temperatures. If vomiting occurs excessively, pregnant women who experience morning sickness can also feel  chest pain .

Morning sickness most often occurs in  the first trimester of  pregnancy or around months 2  and  3  of pregnancy, but there are also pregnant women who experience it from the first month of pregnancy.

Usually the symptoms of this condition will begin to subside in the middle of the second trimester. However, there are also pregnant women who experience morning sickness during pregnancy.

When to see a doctor

Nausea and vomiting during pregnancy is normal, because it is one of the signs of a normal pregnancy . Even so, still do routine checks to the doctor to monitor the condition of the pregnancy.

You are also advised to see a doctor more often, if nausea and vomiting during pregnancy gets worse or is accompanied by the following symptoms:

  • Stomach ache
  • Fever
  • Heart pounding
  • Dizziness  or feeling like you might pass out
  • Headaches that appear many times
  • Urine is scanty or dark in color
  • Vomit that contains blood or is brown in color
  • Can't eat or drink at all
  • The body feels very tired
  • Weight loss
  • dazed

To keep the pregnancy healthy, pregnant women also need regular control to the doctor . Below is a breakdown of the timing of routine visits that need to be made during pregnancy:

  • Weeks 4–28: Once a month
  • Weeks 28–36: Every 2 weeks
  • Weeks 36–40: Once a week

If deemed necessary, pregnant women will be asked by doctors to undergo more frequent examinations to monitor pregnancy and prevent pregnancy complications.

Diagnosis of Morning Sickness

To diagnose morning sickness , the doctor will ask about complaints experienced by pregnant women, medical history before pregnancy, and previous drug use. Next, the doctor will carry out a physical examination to determine the condition of the pregnant woman.

Generally, doctors do not require further examinations to diagnose morning sickness . However, a urine test or blood test may be needed if the doctor suspects that there is a cause or other disease that underlies the appearance of morning sickness .

Morning Sickness Treatment

In most cases, morning sickness is a condition that does not require special medical treatment. However, pregnant women can do the following ways to  relieve morning sickness complaints :

  • Eat snacks first, such as biscuits, when you wake up or before getting out of bed
  • Eat small portions, but more often
  • Avoid spicy and fatty foods
  • Drink more water
  • Avoid caffeinated drinks
  • Take pregnancy supplements right before going to bed if pregnant women feel nauseous after taking these supplements
  • Meet the need for rest, because lack of rest can also trigger nausea and vomiting
  • Breathe fresh air and calm your mind
  • Loosen your bra and always wear comfortable clothes
  • Avoid using air fresheners that smell strong
  • Inhale fruity scents, such as lemon, orange, or mint

If complaints of nausea and vomiting do not decrease or even get worse, consult a doctor immediately to get treatment.

Medicines and vitamins to treat morning sickness

New drugs and vitamins will be given by the doctor if the pregnant woman experiences severe symptoms of morning sickness . The doctor will provide vitamin B6 supplements and anti-nausea drugs, for example metoclopramide or antihistamines which are safe for pregnant women. The following are some antihistamines that doctors can prescribe:

  • Diphenhydramine
  • Dimenhydrinate
  • Metoclopramide
  • Prochlorperazine
  • Promethazine

Pregnant women with severe morning sickness or hyperemesis gravidarum need to be hospitalized so they don't experience complications.

Morning Sickness Complications

Morning sickness generally does not cause serious complications. However, if the morning sickness experienced by pregnant women feels severe, this can indicate hyperemesis gravidarum. If you have reached this stage, some of the pregnancy complications that can occur are:

  • Dehydration
  • Nutritional deficiencies
  • Electrolyte disturbances
  • Disorders of fetal development
  • Premature birth

Prevention of Morning Sickness

Morning sickness can be prevented by avoiding foods that can trigger nausea, such as foods that are too spicy, hot, or that contain lots of sugar. In addition, pregnant women are also advised to eat slowly, in smaller portions, but more often.

When feeling nauseous, pregnant women can eat salty foods, toast, bananas,  corn , biscuits, lemon juice , or drink and food products that contain  ginger . If pregnant women feel the need to take anti-nausea medication , it is advisable to consult a doctor first.

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