Morphine is a drug to relieve moderate to severe pain, such as pain from cancer or a heart attack. This drug is available in tablet and injection form.

Morphine works by blocking pain nerve signals to the brain, so the body does not feel pain temporarily. Although it has a number of benefits, morphine can be addictive, resulting in an overdose that can be life-threatening.

To prevent this, the use of morphine must be in accordance with doctor's recommendations and strictly supervised by a doctor.

Morphine trademarks: Morfikaf, Morfina, Morphine Hydrochloride , MST Continus

What is Morphine

class Prescription drug
Category Opioid pain relievers
Benefit Relieves pain of moderate to severe intensity
Used by Adults and children
Morphine for pregnant and lactating women  Category C: Animal studies have shown an adverse effect on the fetus, but there have been no controlled studies in pregnant women.

Drugs should only be used if the expected benefit outweighs the risk to the fetus.

Morphine can be absorbed into breast milk. If you are breastfeeding, do not use this medicine without consulting your doctor first.

Drug form Syringes and tablets

Warning Before Using Morphine

Morphine should only be used as prescribed by a doctor. The following are some things you need to pay attention to before using morphine:

  • Tell your doctor about any history of allergies you have. Morphine should not be given to patients who are allergic to this drug.
  • Tell your doctor if in the last 14 days you have recently taken an MAOI class drug , such as linezolid . Morphine should not be used if you are taking or have recently used this drug.
  • Tell your doctor if you have or are experiencing asthma or paralytic ileus . Morphine should not be used in patients who have recently had this condition.
  • Tell your doctor if you have or are having sleep apnea , head injury, brain tumor , liver disease, kidney disease , seizures, pancreatic disease, thyroid disease , enlarged prostate, myasthenia gravis , or other mental disorders .
  • Tell your doctor if you have or are experiencing alcohol addiction or drug dependence .
  • Avoid driving a vehicle or doing activities that require alertness while being treated with morphine, because these drugs can cause dizziness and drowsiness .
  • Tell your doctor if you are pregnant, breastfeeding or planning a pregnancy.
  • Tell your doctor that you are taking morphine before having any medical procedure or surgery.
  • Tell your doctor if you are taking certain medications, supplements or herbal products.
  • Tell your doctor if you have an allergic drug reaction , serious side effects, or overdose when using morphine.

Dosage and Rules for Use of Morphine

The dose of morphine given by the doctor depends on the health condition, the body's response, and the patient's age, as well as the dosage form of the drug.

Injectable morphine will be injected through a vein (intravenous/IV), spinal fluid (intrathecal), or the space between the spinal cord and nerve tissue (intraspinal) by a doctor or medical officer under the supervision of a doctor.

The following is the dosage of Morphine to relieve pain of moderate to severe intensity:

Form: Tablets

  • Adult: 5–20 mg, every 4 hours.
  • Children 1–5 years: 5 mg, every 4 hours. The maximum dose is 30 mg.
  • Children 6–12 years: 5–10 mg, every 4 hours. The maximum dose is 60 mg.

Form: Intraspinal injection

  • Adult: Initial dose is 5 mg. If needed, the dose may be increased by 1–2 mg after 1 hour.

Form: Intrathecal injection

  • Adult: 0.2–1 mg as a single dose.

Form: Intravenous injection

  • Adult: Initially, 1–10 mg over 4–5 minutes, followed by 1 mg over 5–10 minutes.

How to Use Morphine Properly

Injectable morphine will be given directly by a doctor or medical officer under the supervision of a doctor.

During the injection, the general condition, respiratory rate and oxygen level of the patient will be regularly monitored by the doctor. This is to ensure the condition and prevent side effects.

Follow all the recommendations and suggestions given by the doctor while undergoing treatment with morphine so that the effectiveness of the treatment is maximized. Do not stop taking medication without consulting your doctor first.

Morphine tablets can be taken before or after meals. Use plain water to swallow the tablets. Do not chew, split, or crush the tablet, as this may increase your risk of side effects.

Store morphine tablets at room temperature and place them in a closed container. Avoid exposure to direct sunlight and keep out of reach of children.

Morphine Interactions with Other Drugs

The following are some of the interaction effects that can occur when morphine is used with certain drugs:

  • Increased risk of fatal side effects, such as severe respiratory distress, coma, and even death when used with benzodiazepine , barbiturate, or antipsychotic drugs .
  • Increased risk of orthostatic hypotension when used with antihypertensive drugs, such as clonidine , lisinopril, or ramipril
  • Increased risk of serotonin syndrome when used with tricyclic antidepressants, such as amitriptyline
  • Decreased levels of morphine in the blood causing side effects if used with MAOI class drugs, rifampicin , erythromycin, diltiazem, or ritonavir
  • Decreased analgesic effect of morphine when used with certain types of opioid drugs, such as nalbuphine or pentazocine

In addition, the side effects of morphine on the nervous system will increase if consumed with alcoholic beverages .

Side Effects and Dangers of Morphine

Tell your doctor or medical staff if the side effects below do not go away or get worse:

  • Headache
  • stomach cramps
  • Flustered
  • Severe drowsiness
  • Constipation
  • Mood swings
  • Difficulty urinating
  • Nausea or vomiting

In addition, immediately report to your doctor if you experience an allergic drug reaction or experience more serious side effects, such as:

  • Irregular heartbeat, slow heartbeat, or palpitations
  • It's hard to breathe
  • Stiff muscles
  • Hallucinations
  • Decreased sexual desire
  • seizures
  • Faint
  • Blurred vision
  • Chest pain
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