Myopia (Nearsightedness)

Myopia (Nearsightedness)

Nearsightedness or myopia is a vision disorder that causes distant objects to appear blurry , but there is no problem seeing objects that are near. Myopia or nearsightedness is also known as minus eye .

Myopia or nearsightedness is a refractive disorder of the eye . This condition occurs because the eye cannot focus light on where it should be, namely the retina of the eye.

The main symptom of nearsightedness is blurred vision when looking at distant objects, such as writing on a blackboard or traffic signs.

Myopia can be treated with the use of glasses. Apart from glasses, myopia can also be treated with LASIK surgery which uses a laser beam.

Causes of Myopia (Nearsightedness)

Myopia or nearsightedness occurs when the light entering the eye does not fall where it should, namely the retina. This condition is caused by the shape of the eyeball that is longer than normal eyeballs.

Myopia can also occur when the cornea and lens of the eye, which function to focus light on the retina, are abnormal.

Until now, the cause of the eyeball being longer than normal is not known with certainty. However, there are several factors that are thought to increase this risk, including:

  • Genetic
    Someone whose parents are nearsighted have a greater risk of suffering from nearsightedness.
  • Lack of sunlight
    Someone who rarely does outdoor activities is more at risk of suffering from nearsightedness because they don't get enough sunlight.
  • Vitamin D deficiency
    A study says that someone who is deficient in vitamin D is at risk of developing myopia.
  • The habit of reading or watching too closely
    Someone who often reads, looks at the monitor screen, or watches too close to the eye is more prone to nearsightedness.

Symptoms of Myopia (Nearsightedness)

Symptoms of myopia or nearsightedness can occur in anyone of any age group. However, this condition generally begins to appear in school-aged children to teenagers.

People with myopia will feel blurred vision when looking at distant objects. In children, this condition often causes them to have difficulty seeing the letters on the blackboard when sitting in the back row.

Whereas in adults, a common complaint is difficulty seeing traffic signs.

As a result of difficulty seeing distant objects, certain symptoms often appear in sufferers of myopia, namely:

  • Headache
  • Tired eyes because the eyes work too much
  • Wink often
  • Often squints when looking at distant objects
  • Frequent rubbing of eyes
  • Appears oblivious to the presence of distant objects

In children, myopia can cause the following signs and symptoms:

  • School performance declined
  • Difficulty in focusing on studying
  • Often brings objects or books to the face

Nearsightedness can get worse with age, but usually stabilizes in adulthood. However, in some cases, nearsightedness can continue to get worse.

When to go to the doctor

If you suspect a change or decrease in your vision, consult a doctor immediately , for example if you cannot see writing or distant objects that are normally seen.

You are also advised to take your child to the doctor if he seems to have myopia symptoms.

In addition, there is an emergency medical condition that is a complication of nearsightedness, namely retinal detachment or detachment . Immediately consult a doctor if you suffer from symptoms of retinal detachment, such as:

  • There are flashes of light in one or both eyes
  • A shadow like a curtain appears in the vision
  • The eyes are dizzy
  • Seeing spots or floating objects ( floaters )

Diagnosis of Myopia (Nearsightedness)

The doctor will ask about the symptoms that appear, when the symptoms appeared, and the severity. After that, the doctor will do an eye examination.

The doctor will also check the sharpness of the patient's eyes using the Snellen chart . In this examination, the patient will be asked to look at the diagram from a distance of 6 meters, then read the letters or numbers on the diagram, starting from the largest to the smallest size.

If suspected of having myopia, the doctor will ask the patient to read letters and numbers again with the help of a minus lens. This minus lens is placed in a tool called a refractor. The doctor will change the lens until he finds a lens size that suits the patient.

If the patient's vision is still impaired, the doctor can carry out supporting examinations, such as:

  • Examination of the pupils, to see the response of the pupils to light by shining a light on the eyes using a special flashlight or lamp
  • Examination of eye movements, to see whether the patient's eyes move in harmony or not
  • Side vision examination, to determine the condition and ability of the patient's side vision
  • Examination of the front of the eyeball, to see any injuries or cataracts on the cornea, iris, lens and eyelids
  • Examination of the retina and eye nerves, to see any damage to the retina or eye nerves
  • Check eyeball pressure, to see if there is an increase in pressure in the eyeball by pressing the eye slowly using a special tool

Treatment of Myopia (Nearsightedness)

Treatment of myopia or nearsightedness aims to help light focus on the retina. The type of treatment chosen depends on the patient's age, the severity of the nearsightedness, and the patient's health condition.

Use of glasses or contact lenses

The simplest and most affordable way to treat myopia or nearsightedness is to use glasses or contact lenses. Selection of glasses and contact lenses depends on the needs and comfort of the patient.

When choosing to use contact lenses, be sure to always keep contact lenses clean to avoid eye infections. Contact lenses should also be removed before going to bed.

Surgery with a laser beam (LASIK)

Surgery with laser light, for example LASIK and SMILE , can also be an alternative. Almost all patients who undergo this operation feel a significant change. In this surgery, a laser beam is used to adjust the curvature of the cornea.

Keep in mind, this procedure is not suitable for people under 21 years of age because their eyes can still develop.

Artificial lens implant

Artificial lens implants are performed to treat severe myopia or nearsightedness and cannot be treated with laser surgery. This procedure is performed by inserting an artificial lens without removing the original eyepiece, or replacing the original lens with an artificial one.

Myopia Complications (Nearsightedness)

Miopia that is not treated properly will interfere with the sufferer's quality of life, because he cannot carry out normal daily activities. In addition, severe myopia also increases the risk of other eye disorders, such as retinal detachment, cataracts and glaucoma .

Pregnant women who suffer from myopia or high minus eye are advised not to give birth normally. If you give birth normally, people with high myopia are at risk of experiencing retinal detachment or detachment.

If you have high minus eyes and are pregnant, discuss with your doctor about delivery plans.

Prevention of Myopia (Nearsightedness)

Nearsightedness cannot be completely prevented. However, there are some simple steps you can take to keep your eyes healthy. These efforts include:

  • Use sunglasses when traveling during the day to protect your eyes from the sun.
  • Do routine eye health checks .
  • Use glasses or contact lenses with the right size.
  • Stop smoking habit .
  • Rest your eyes regularly when working on computers, tablets and smartphones .
  • Increase consumption of fruits and vegetables, especially those rich in vitamin A and vitamin D.
  • Get regular health checks if you have chronic diseases, especially diabetes and hypertension .
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