ODD or oppositional defiant disorder is a behavior disorder that often appears in childhood with symptoms of irritability and irritability. ODD sufferers also often show defiance and revenge.
ODD is more than the normal tantrums seen in children. Tantrums appear as a response to a child's unfulfilled desires. Normally, tantrums appear at the age of 1–1.5 years, then get worse at 2–3 years of age, and subside by 4 years of age.
Meanwhile, ODD generally appears at the age of 6-8 years , but can last into adolescence and even adulthood. The symptoms shown are also more aggressive and appear more frequently than tantrums, causing a negative impact on the sufferer's daily life.
ODD Causes and Risk Factors
The cause of ODD is not known with certainty. However, there are allegations that ODD is related to environmental, biological, and psychological factors. Several biological factors that are believed to trigger ODD are:
- Suffering from brain dysfunction, such as abnormal function of chemicals in the brain ( neurotransmitters ).
- Experiencing an injury to the brain that causes interference in the part of the brain that functions to provide judgment, judgment, and emotional control
- Have parents with a history of ADHD , bipolar disorder, depression, conduct disorder , or substance abuse
- Having a mother who smoked while pregnant
- Suffer from nutritional deficiencies
Meanwhile, several psychological factors that are believed to trigger ODD are:
- Disharmony in the family
- Lack of attention from parents
- Inability to establish social relationships
Meanwhile, social factors that are thought to trigger ODD include:
- Inconsistent discipline
- Living in an unkind or violent environment
Opposition and defiance are normal behaviors that arise during a child's development. However, in children with ODD, this rebellious behavior will be more severe and last longer, for at least 6 months.
Generally, ODD symptoms are seen before children enter school, but can also appear before adolescence. These symptoms can cause disturbances in the family, school, or social environment.
Symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder ( ODD ) can be seen in the behavior and emotions of the sufferer, for example:
- It's easy to lose your temper
- Easily angry, irritated and offended
- Very sensitive and easily annoyed
- Often annoys and annoys other people
- Often argues with older people
- Often refuses to obey orders or rules
- Often blames others for his own mistakes
- Often shows grudges or hatred towards others
When to see a doctor
Consult a doctor if your child shows any of the above symptoms, or if you have difficulty educating and directing children to behave properly.
ODD is important to be treated early. If not, ODD can increase the risk of sufferers experiencing behavioral disorders or other mental disorders, such as conduct disorder or antisocial personality .
To diagnose ODD, a doctor or psychologist will evaluate the patient's mental health through question and answer. Patients can be diagnosed with ODD if they have the following criteria set out in The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5):
- There are at least four symptoms as mentioned above
- Symptoms last for at least 6 months and negatively impact daily life
- The symptoms are not caused by substance abuse or another mental disorder, such as psychosis , depression, and bipolar disorder
After that, the doctor will determine whether the patient's ODD is classified as mild, moderate, or severe. The severity of these symptoms is determined by how often the symptoms appear. Here is the explanation:
- Mild ODD, namely ODD with symptoms that appear in one condition, for example only at home or at school
- Moderate ODD, namely ODD with symptoms that appear in two conditions, for example at home and at school
- Severe ODD, namely ODD symptoms appear in three or more conditions, such as at home, school, and in social settings
ODD treatment depends on the patient's age, severity, and ability to follow therapy. Therapy can last for several months or more with the involvement of parents or family.
Doctors will usually combine several types of therapy to treat ODD patients, such as:
- Cognitive behavioral therapy , to improve the patient's mindset and behavior, as well as improve his ability to communicate and solve problems
- Parent and child interaction therapy, to teach parents good ways to interact with children
- Family therapy, to improve parents' ability to educate and raise children, as well as improve relationships and communication between family members
- Social skills therapy, to improve the patient's ability to interact with others
Doctors can also prescribe medication if ODD is accompanied by other mental disorders, such as ADHD or depression. However, keep in mind that medication alone cannot treat ODD.
In order for therapy to provide more effective results, parents can do the following:
- Set an example of good behavior in children
- Avoid things that can trigger an argument with the child
- Praise the child's positive behavior , for example when he tidies up his toys
- Give reasonable punishment to children, such as reducing their allowance, if they behave badly
- Consistently spending special time with children
- Building cooperation with families and teachers in schools to educate children to be disciplined
Children and adolescents with ODD tend to have difficulty making friends and have problems with family, teachers, or other people. ODD can also cause other problems in children, such as:
- Reluctant to socialize
- Decreased performance at school
- Disturbances in controlling desires
- Drug abuse
- Suicidal ideation
Most people with ODD also suffer from other mental disorders, such as:
- ADHD ( attention deficit hyperactivity disorder )
- Conduct disorder , which is a behavioral disorder characterized by antisocial attitudes and difficulty following rules
- Anxiety disorder
- Learning and communication disorders
Oppositional defiant disorder is difficult to prevent. Even so, the behavior of children with ODD can be corrected and worsening of their condition can be prevented. The trick is to provide proper education and provide early treatment when children show symptoms of ODD.
In addition, it is important to make the home a place for education and comfortable upbringing. It is also important to provide balanced affection and discipline . This can reduce symptoms and prevent ODD symptoms from recurring.