Pelvic Pain

Pelvic Pain

Pelvic pain is pain that appears in the lower part of the abdomen. Pain can last continuously or come and go. The characteristics of the pain can also be a dull, spreading pain or sharp and stabbing in a certain area.

Pelvic pain is common in women and can be a sign of a problem with the reproductive organs. However, men can also experience pelvic pain, for example in patients with kidney stones, hernias, or urinary tract infections.

Pelvic pain may radiate to the lower back, buttocks or thighs. If not treated immediately, this condition can interfere with the sufferer's activities.

Causes of Pelvic Pain

Based on the time of occurrence, pelvic pain is divided into two types, namely acute and chronic pelvic pain. Acute pelvic pain appears suddenly and is only temporary, while chronic pelvic pain can last for more than 6 months.

Conditions that can cause acute pelvic pain include:

  • Ovarian cysts , both  benign and malignant
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease
  • Appendicitis (appendicitis)
  • Inflammation of the abdominal cavity ( peritonitis )
  • Urinary tract infection
  • Constipation or constipation
  • Ectopic pregnancy

Meanwhile, several conditions that can cause chronic pelvic pain are:

  • endometriosis
  • Chronic pelvic inflammation
  • Irritable bowel syndrome
  • hernia
  • Damaged or compressed nerves in the pelvic area
  • Myoma
  • Adenomyosis

Pelvic Pain Symptoms

Symptoms of pelvic pain can vary for each patient. Here are some examples of pain that can occur in sufferers and their possible causes:

  • Local pain, due to inflammation in the pelvic area
  • Cramps, due to painful menstruation ( dysmenorrhea ), disturbances in the intestine, kidney stones , or appendicitis
  • Pain that appears suddenly, due to blockage of blood vessels in the pelvic organs
  • Pain that gets worse slowly, due to appendicitis or intestinal obstruction
  • Pain that spreads throughout the abdominal area, due to peritonitis
  • Pain that gets worse when you move or when your stomach is pressed, which can be caused by peritonitis
  • Pain during intercourse, which can result from endometriosis, adenomyosis, descent, or pelvic inflammatory disease

In some cases, pain can spread to other parts of the body, such as the thighs, buttocks or back.

Depending on the cause, both acute and chronic pelvic pain, there are also other symptoms that can accompany it, including:

  • Fever
  • Diarrhea
  • vaginal discharge
  • Bleeding
  • Pain when urinating
  • Nauseous
  • dazed
  • Loss of consciousness

When to see a doctor

Pelvic pain in women usually occurs due to disorders in the reproductive organs. Immediately do an examination to the doctor if you experience severe pelvic pain and it comes suddenly, especially if it is accompanied by:

  • Dizzy
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Fever and chills
  • Vaginal bleeding, especially if it occurs after menopause

If you experience recurrent pelvic pain, check with your doctor to get the right treatment. If not treated properly, pelvic pain can develop into a more serious condition.

If you experience pelvic pain during menstruation , the cramps that appear are generally mild and normal. This condition does not require medical treatment. However, a doctor's examination is needed if the pain is very disturbing.

Pelvic Pain Diagnosis

The diagnosis will begin by asking the patient's overall symptoms. Questions about pelvic pain that will be asked include:

  • When and where does the pain occur
  • How long the pain lasts
  • What pain feels like
  • What triggers the pain
  • Is the pain related to the menstrual cycle, sexual activity, and urinating or defecating
  • Are there any factors that exacerbate or reduce the pain?

Next, the doctor will ask about the patient's and family's medical history, as well as the patient's sexual history. After that, the doctor can carry out supporting examinations, such as:

  • Blood test , to check for signs of infection
  • Urine test, to check for urinary tract infection or kidney disorders
  • Pelvic examination and pap smear , to check for possible infection or cervical cancer
  • Culture of vaginal discharge or penile discharge, to check for sexually transmitted diseases such as gonorrhea or chlamydia
  • Colonoscopy, to check for growths, blockages, or abnormalities in the large intestine
  • Sigmoidoscopy, to determine the cause of pain, bleeding, and changes in bowel habits
  • Pelvic ultrasound , to look for abnormalities in the pelvic organs and structures
  • A pelvic scan test in the form of a CT scan or MRI of the abdomen and pelvis, to examine the pelvic area more clearly
  • Pelvic laparoscopy, to examine the pelvic and abdominal structures

Pelvic Pain Treatment

Treatment of pelvic pain will be adjusted to the cause. Therefore, patients are advised to consult a doctor first so that the cause can be identified. After that, then the doctor will determine the appropriate treatment method.

In pelvic pain caused by a urinary tract infection, treatment is carried out by administering antibiotics, including:

  • Amoxicillin
  • Ciprofloxacin
  • Levofloxacin
  • Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole
  • Cephalexins

Doctors can also prescribe other antibiotics to treat the infection. Therefore, do not use drugs without first discussing it with your doctor. Incorrect types and doses of antibiotics have the potential to worsen the condition, and even cause drug side effects.

Meanwhile, to relieve pain, the doctor will prescribe non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen or paracetamol. Even so, these drugs are usually not very effective in treating chronic pelvic pain.

Apart from using drugs, there are several other actions that can be taken to treat pelvic pain, namely:

  • Physical therapy
  • Muscle relaxation exercises
  • Cognitive behavioral therapy
  • Oral contraceptives
  • Injections at pain trigger points
  • Operation

Although rare, pelvic pain can also be treated by surgical removal of the uterus ( hysterectomy ). This method is performed on pelvic pain due to endometriosis or severe myoma.

Pelvic Pain Complications

Pelvic pain is a condition that can interfere with daily activities. Moreover, if the pelvic pain experienced is chronic pelvic pain.

If not treated properly, chronic pelvic pain has the potential to cause stress and depression, which can also make the pain worse. Sufferers may also experience sleep disturbances, sexual disorders, and decreased quality of life.

Pelvic Pain Prevention

Steps that can be taken to avoid the occurrence of pelvic pain is to prevent the underlying disease or condition. One of them is preventing sexually transmitted diseases by avoiding free sex behavior that can trigger disease transmission.

Other things that can be done as an effort to prevent pelvic pain include:

  • Adequate intake of fiber from fruits and vegetables, to prevent constipation which can cause intestinal inflammation
  • Drink enough water
  • Exercise regularly with light–moderate intensity for at least 30 minutes a day
  • Sit in the correct position when working
  • Don't lift things that are too heavy
  • Routinely do pap smears , for women
  • Always maintain the cleanliness of the genital organs
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