Personality Disorders

Personality Disorders

Personality disorders are a type of mental illness . This condition causes sufferers to have patterns of thought and behavior that are not normal and difficult to change. People with personality disorders also have difficulty understanding situations and other people .

Generally, personality disorders appear in adolescence or early adulthood. Personality disorders are often not realized by the sufferer, but it is felt by the people around the sufferer. This can cause problems in the social environment, whether at home, school, business, or work.

Causes of Personality Disorder

The causes of personality disorders are not known with certainty. Like normal personality, abnormal personality is formed by many factors. Deviations from these factors can form personality disorders.

The two main factors that are considered to play a major role in the formation of personality disorders are the genes inherited from parents (temperament) and the environment.

The following are some of the factors that are thought to increase the risk of developing a personality disorder:

  • Have abnormalities in brain structure or chemical composition in the brain
  • Spending childhood in a disharmonious family life
  • Having feelings is often neglected from childhood
  • Experiencing abuse since childhood, both verbally and physically
  • Have a low level of education
  • Living in the middle of a family experiencing economic difficulties

Personality Disorder Symptoms

Based on the type, personality disorders are divided into three groups, namely group A, group B, and group C personality disorders.

People with group A personality disorder generally have strange and unnatural thoughts and behaviors. Types of group A personality disorders include:

  • Schizotypal personality disorder
    In this type of personality disorder, the sufferer has anxiety or discomfort in social situations, has inappropriate behavior, speech, and dress style, and likes to fantasize.
  • Schizoid personality disorder
    This type is a personality disorder in which sufferers are cold, aloof, and avoid social interactions or close relationships with other people.
  • Paranoid personality disorder
    In paranoid personality disorder , sufferers have excessive suspicion and distrust of other people, including partners.

Meanwhile, group B personality disorders are characterized by unpredictable patterns of thought and behavior, as well as behaviors that tend to be dramatic and emotional. Group B personal disorder consists of:

  • Borderline personality
    disorder is a personality disorder in which sufferers behave impulsively and risky, have unstable and fragile emotions, and also have an urge to hurt themselves. People who have this personality disorder are also prone to experiencing an identity crisis.
  • Antisocial personality disorder
    In this type of personality disorder, sufferers often ignore prevailing social norms, violate the law, have a rude and aggressive attitude, and have no sympathy for others.  Psychopaths or sociopaths  and Ripley Syndrome are 2 types of personality that are included in antisocial personality disorder.
  • Narcissistic personality disorder
    In narcissistic personality disorder , sufferers believe that they are more special than other people, tend to be arrogant, and always expect praise from others.
  • Histrionic personality
    disorder Histrionic personality disorder is a personality disorder in which the sufferer is overly concerned about appearance, tends to be dramatic in speech, and always seeks attention.

Although each type is different, group C personality disorders have one feature in common, namely anxiety and fear. The following are types of group C personality disorders:

  • Dependent personality
    disorder Dependent personality disorder is a personality disorder in which the sufferer is very dependent on other people in everything, has no self-confidence and feels unable to do anything alone, and cannot defend himself.
  • Avoidant
    personality disorder This personality disorder is also called avoidant personality disorder . This type of personality disorder is a personality disorder in which sufferers avoid social contact, especially in new activities involving strangers, because they feel afraid of not being accepted or of being embarrassed.
  • Obsessive compulsive personality disorder
    In obsessive compulsive personality disorder , sufferers can be said to be "control freaks", have difficulty working with others because standards are too high, easily anxious or afraid if something goes not according to their rules or wishes, and stubborn.

When to go to the doctor

Immediately consult a mental health specialist ( psychiatrist ) if you become aware of behavior that leads to personality disorder, especially if these symptoms have interfered with daily activities or caused complaints from co-workers or those closest to them.

If people around you show symptoms of personality disorder, invite them to share their stories and talk carefully about the symptoms they are experiencing. If possible, take him to see a psychiatrist.

Go to the emergency room immediately if you see signs of someone wanting to kill themselves or self-harm, especially if they have the potential to hurt other people. Stay with him and seek help as soon as possible.

Personality Disorder Diagnosis

To diagnose a personality disorder, the doctor or psychiatrist will first ask questions about the patient's and family's complaints and medical history.

After that, the doctor or psychiatrist will hold a discussion with the patient or give a questionnaire regarding his thoughts, feelings and behavior. Additional information from family members, co-workers or close friends will greatly assist the doctor in making a diagnosis.

If deemed necessary, the doctor will carry out supporting examinations, such as blood tests , to determine whether the patient's symptoms are caused by alcohol or drug addiction. This could be what triggers the emergence of symptoms of personality disorders.

Personality Disorder Treatment

Psychological therapy under the guidance of a psychiatrist is the main treatment for personality disorders. This therapy aims to improve the patient's ability to control emotions and thoughts better.

Several types of psychological therapy that psychiatrists can use to treat personality disorders are:

Cognitive behavioral therapy

This therapy aims to change the patient's way of thinking and behavior in a positive direction. Cognitive behavioral therapy is based on the theory that a person's behavior is a manifestation of his thoughts. That is, if someone thinks negatively, then their behavior will also be negative, and vice versa.

Psychodynamic therapy

This therapy aims to find out and correct all forms of deviations that have existed since childhood. Once known, the patient will be taught how to deal with problems related to these deviations independently.

Interpersonal therapy

This therapy is based on the theory that a person's mental health is greatly affected by their interactions with other people. That is, if the interaction is problematic, personality disorders can form.

In addition to psychological therapy, the following treatment methods can also be used to treat personality disorders:

  • Use of drugs
    Several types of psychiatric drugs, such as antidepressants, mood stabilizers, antipsychotics, and anxiety relievers can help relieve the symptoms you are experiencing, especially if the symptoms have entered moderate or severe levels.
  • Lifestyle changes
    Implementing a healthy lifestyle, such as diligently exercising and always being active in various activities can help manage emotions and keep away from depression , stress, and anxiety.

Complications of Personality Disorder

Personality disorders can cause serious complications, both physical, emotional, and behavioral. Some of the complications that can arise are:

  • Unhappy feeling in life
  • Decreased productivity
  • Difficulty connecting with other people
  • Alienated from the social environment
  • Alcohol or drug abuse
  • Desire to commit suicide and harm others
  • Caught up in legal and financial problems

Personality Disorder Prevention

Personality disorders cannot be prevented. However, there are several steps that can be taken to reduce the risk, namely:

  • Actively participate in socializing and favorite activities
  • Share stories with friends and family when facing problems
  • Exercise, eat regularly, and manage stress well
  • Go to bed and wake up regularly at the same time every day
  • Do not consume alcoholic beverages
  • Taking medicines prescribed by a doctor, according to the dosage and instructions for use
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