Rho or anti-D immunoglobulin is a drug to prevent hemolytic anemia due to rhesus differences between the fetus and the mother (rhesus incompatibility). This condition occurs when the fetus has a positive rhesus while the mother has a negative rhesus.
Rho works by preventing the formation of Rh antibodies in the mother's body during pregnancy and after childbirth. Rh antibodies are formed when there is a rhesus difference between the fetus and the mother.
These antibodies will then attack the fetus with positive rhesus in the second pregnancy and so on. If this condition is not prevented, the baby born can experience life-threatening hemolytic anemia .
Rho is also given to rhesus negative patients who have already received blood transfusions from rhesus positive patients. Giving Rho in this condition aims to prevent fatal side effects, such as shock and kidney failure. In addition, Rho immunoglobulin can also be used in the treatment of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP).
Rho trademark: HyperRho S/D
What is Rho
|Benefit||Preventing hemolytic anemia in newborns due to rhesus incompatibility, preventing the formation of Rh antibodies due to blood transfusions with rhesus incompatibility, and treating idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP).|
|Rho for pregnant and lactating women||
Category C: Studies in animal studies have shown an adverse effect on the fetus, but there have been no controlled studies in pregnant women. The drug should only be used if the expected benefit outweighs the risk to the fetus.
It is not yet known whether Rho can be absorbed into breast milk or not. If you are breastfeeding, consult your doctor first about the benefits and side effects of Rho.
Warning Before Using Rho
Rho injections should only be given in a hospital by a doctor or medical officer under the supervision of a doctor. There are several things that need to be considered before using this drug, including:
- Tell your doctor about any history of allergies you have. Rho immunoglobulin should not be given to patients who are allergic to this or any other immunoglobulin drug.
- Tell your doctor if you have a deficiency of any type of immunoglobulin (IgA), or hemolytic anemia. Rho immunoglobulin should not be given to patients with these conditions.
- Rho should not be given to newborns.
- Tell your doctor if you have or have ever had diabetes , anemia, high triglycerides , stroke, coronary heart disease , pulmonary edema, blood clotting disorders, such as hemophilia .
- Consult with your doctor first if you plan to get vaccinated while using Rho.
- Tell your doctor if you are taking certain medications, supplements or herbal products.
- Tell your doctor if you are pregnant, breastfeeding or planning a pregnancy.
- Tell your doctor right away if you have an allergic reaction , serious side effects, or overdose after using Rho.
Dosage and Rules for Use Rho
Rho immunoglobulin is injected into a vein or muscle tissue (intramuscular/IM). The doctor will determine the dosage according to the patient's condition and weight. In general, the following are Rho dosages based on their intended use:
Purpose: To prevent hemolytic anemia in newborns due to rhesus incompatibility
A dose of 1,500 IU is injected into the muscle tissue of pregnant women as a single dose at 28–30 weeks of gestation and 0–72 hours after delivery.
Purpose: Prevent the formation of Rh antibodies after blood transfusion
Intramuscular injection of 100 IU (20 mcg) per 2 mL of rhesus positive RBCs transfused. Maximum dose 15,000 UI (3,000 mcg)
Purpose: Treating idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura ( ITP )
Initial dose of 250 IU/kg BW, injected into a vein as a single dose or in 2 divided doses on separate days. For patients who already have anemia, the recommended dose is 125–200 IU/kg (25–40 mcg/kg), given as a single dose or in 2 divided doses.
How to Use Rho Properly
Rho will be given at the hospital and injected directly by a doctor or medical personnel under the supervision of a doctor. Follow the doctor's instructions while on treatment with Rho so that the effectiveness of the treatment is maximized.
The doctor will inject Rho's drug into the patient's vein or muscle tissue. The doctor will monitor the patient's breathing, blood pressure, oxygen levels, and kidney function during treatment with Rho. You will also need to have a urine test every 2–4 hours, for at least 8 hours.
For treatment during pregnancy, Rho immunoglobulin will be given periodically in the final trimester of pregnancy and given again after the baby is born. For treatment due to inappropriate blood transfusions, Rho drugs are given when symptoms appear.
While undergoing treatment with Rho, follow the advice given by the doctor. You will be asked to have regular blood tests to monitor the response to therapy.
Rho Interactions with Other Drugs
If Rho is used simultaneously with an injection of a vaccine that uses live germs, such as the BCG , chickenpox, MMR , influenza, or rotavirus vaccines, the effectiveness of the vaccine will decrease.
Always tell your doctor if you plan to use drugs, supplements, or herbal products while taking Rho.
Rho Side Effects and Dangers
There are several side effects that may occur after using Rho, namely:
- Warm feeling in the face, neck, or chest ( flushing )
- Headache or dizziness
- Excessive sweating
- Joint pain or muscle pain
- Drowsiness , malaise, or weakness
- Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea , or stomach pain
- Swelling or pain at the injection site
Check with your doctor if the side effects above don't go away or get worse. Rho can also increase the risk of intravascular hemolysis which can cause anemia , acute kidney failure, DIC ( disseminated intravascular coagulation ), or respiratory distress syndrome.
Immediately see your doctor if you experience an allergic drug reaction or complaints and symptoms that indicate more serious side effects, such as:
- Fever , chills, weakness, back pain , or pale
- Coughing up blood or shortness of breath
- Bloody urine or very little urine
- Swelling, warmth and pain in the leg
- Sudden one-sided numbness or weakness, lightheadedness, or blurred vision