The rotavirus vaccine is a vaccine to prevent rotavirus infection which can cause vomiting or gastroenteritis. Rotavirus vaccine contains live attenuated rotavirus.
The rotavirus vaccine works by triggering the body's immune system to produce antibodies that can fight the rotavirus whenever this virus attacks.
There are two types of Rotavirus vaccines in Indonesia, namely monovalent and pentavalent Rotavirus vaccines. The pentavalent Rotavirus vaccine contains five types (strains) of rotavirus, while the monovalent Rotavirus vaccine contains only one type of rotavirus.
Rotavirus vaccine trademarks: Rotarix (monovalent), RotaTeq (pentavalent)
What is the Rotavirus Vaccine
|Benefit||Prevent rotavirus infection which causes gastroenteritis or vomiting|
|Used by||Children, maximum age 6 months for monovalent Rotavirus vaccine, and 8 months for pentavalent Rotavirus vaccine|
|Rotavirus vaccine for pregnant and lactating women||Category C: Studies in animal studies have shown an adverse effect on the fetus, but there have been no controlled studies in pregnant women. The drug should only be used if the expected benefit outweighs the risk to the fetus. It is not known whether Rotavirus vaccine is absorbed into breast milk or not. . This vaccine is not for use by adolescents and adults, so pregnant women and nursing mothers should not use it.|
|Drug form||Suspension or solution|
Precautions Before Receiving Rotavirus Vaccine
Rotavirus vaccine is a type of vaccine that is derived from a live virus that has been weakened. There are several things that need to be considered before your child gets vaccinated with the Rotavirus vaccine, namely:
- Tell the doctor about any history of allergies your child has. Rotavirus vaccine should not be given to children who are allergic to the ingredients in this vaccine.
- Tell the doctor if your child is suffering from a weakened immune system due to chemotherapy , radiotherapy, use of immunosuppressant drugs , or a disease, such as severe combined immunity (SCID).
- Tell the doctor if your child has ever had intussusception , spina bifida, or congenital bladder disease, such as bladder exstrophy ,
- Tell the doctor if your child is taking any medications, supplements or herbal products.
- Immediately consult a doctor if your child has an allergic reaction or serious side effects after receiving the Rotavirus vaccine.
Rotavirus Vaccine Dosage and Schedule
Rotavirus vaccine is one of the vaccines included in the selected immunization program. In accordance with the immunization schedule issued by the Indonesian Pediatrician Association (IDAI), the Rotavirus vaccine can be given to infants from 6 weeks of age to a maximum of 6-8 months of age, depending on the type of vaccine given.
The following is the dosage and schedule for administering the Rotavirus vaccine divided by type of vaccine:
Monovalent rotavirus vaccine
Monovalent Rotavirus vaccine is given 2 times. The first dose is given when the child is 6–14 weeks old and the second dose is given at least 4 weeks later. The second dose can also be given when the child is 16 weeks old or at the latest when he is 24 weeks old.
The monovalent rotavirus vaccine is administered orally or by mouth. The dose given in one administration is 1.5 ml.
Pentavalent rotavirus vaccine
Pentavalent Rotavirus vaccine is given 3 times. The first dose is when the child is 6–14 weeks old. The second and third doses are given 4–8 weeks apart after the previous vaccine. The final deadline for giving the third dose is when the child reaches 32 weeks of age.
The pentavalent rotavirus vaccine is also given by mouth. The dose given in one administration is 2 ml.
How to administer the Rotavirus Vaccine
The Rotavirus vaccine will be given directly by a doctor or medical officer under the supervision of a doctor at the vaccination service. Before giving the vaccine, the doctor or medical officer will carry out an examination to make sure the child is healthy and ready to be vaccinated.
If the child has a fever during the examination, vaccination can be postponed until the condition improves. Meanwhile, if the child only has a mild illness, such as a cold, vaccinations can still be done.
Rotavirus vaccine is given by dripping slowly into the child's mouth. This is to prevent the vaccine from being vomited again. To reduce the risk of vomiting the vaccine again, it is best to give the vaccine before the baby feeds.
Rotavirus can be found in the feces of children who have recently had a Rotavirus vaccination. In order to prevent transmission of the virus through children's feces, always wash your hands after handling children's diapers. As much as possible avoid children near or touching people who are sick, for up to 15 days after receiving the vaccine.
Make sure the child gets all the prescribed vaccine doses. If the child misses a dose, immediately go to the doctor or nearest health facility to receive the missed dose.
Rotavirus Vaccine Interactions with Other Drugs
If the Rotavirus vaccine is given with immunosuppressant drugs, including corticosteroid drugs , the effectiveness of these vaccines may be reduced. To anticipate drug-drug interaction effects, tell your doctor about any medications, supplements, or herbal products you are taking before receiving this vaccine.
Rotavirus Vaccine Side Effects and Dangers
Rotavirus vaccine is safe for children and rarely causes side effects. Reasonable side effects that can occur after administration of the vaccine are fussiness, anxiety, vomiting , and diarrhea .
The side effects above are generally mild and can heal without treatment. Check with your doctor if these side effects don't go away or get worse. You should also see a doctor immediately if an allergic reaction occurs after taking the rotavirus vaccine.
Although it rarely happens, giving Rotavirus vaccines to children can run the risk of causing more serious side effects, such as intussusception . Immediately go to the doctor if the baby has bloody bowel movements , is vomiting, or cries continuously after receiving the MR vaccine.