Definition of Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that can affect behavior, emotions, and communication. Schizophrenia sufferers can experience hallucinations, delusions, thought disorder, and behavioral changes.
Schizophrenia is often equated with psychosis , although the two are different. Psychosis is just one of the symptoms of mental disorders, such as bipolar disorder , delusions, severe depression, and schizophrenia. Although symptoms of psychosis can appear in schizophrenia, not all people with schizophrenia will experience it.
Based on data from the WHO, there are more than 20 million people worldwide suffering from schizophrenia. Meanwhile, according to research by the Indonesian Ministry of Health in 2019, it is estimated that there are 450,000 people with severe mental disorders in Indonesia, including schizophrenia. The most common type of schizophrenia is paranoid schizophrenia .
It should be known that people with schizophrenia have a 2-3 times higher risk of dying at a young age. This is because schizophrenia is generally accompanied by other diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, or infection.
Symptoms and Causes of Schizophrenia
The symptoms of schizophrenia are divided into two categories, namely positive symptoms and negative symptoms. Positive symptoms are marked by changes in perception that result in the sufferer behaving inappropriately. The symptoms can be hallucinations, delusions, or abnormal behavior.
Meanwhile, negative symptoms are characterized by the sufferer's inability to socialize. This symptom is characterized by the tendency of the sufferer to withdraw from socializing and not care about appearance.
The cause of schizophrenia itself is not known for certain. However, there are factors that are thought to increase the occurrence of schizophrenia, including genetic factors and environmental influences.
Treatment and Prevention of Schizophrenia
Until now, there is no medicine that can cure schizophrenia. However, there are treatments that can control and reduce symptoms. The handling can be in the form of:
- Administration of antipsychotic drugs
- Electroconvulsive therapy
The prevention of schizophrenia is to detect and treat it early so that the worsening and recurrence of this disease can be prevented. That way, the patient's quality of life will improve.