Timolol is a medicine to treat high pressure inside the eye (intraocular pressure), due to glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Timolol is available in the form of 0.25% and 0.5% eye drops.

Timolol is a beta blocker drug or beta blocker that works by reducing the production of fluid in the eyeball. By reducing the production of this fluid, intraocular pressure will decrease so that eye damage or other complications can be prevented.

To treat glaucoma, timolol can be used as a single treatment or in combination with several other drugs.

Timolol trademarks:  Azarga, Cosopt, Duotrav, Glaoplus, Isotic Adretor 0.25%, Isotic Adretor 0.5%, Opthil, Tim-Ophtal, Timo-Comod 0.5%, Timol, Ximex Opticom, Xalacom

What is Timolol

class Prescription drug
Category Beta blockers or beta blockers
Benefit Reducing pressure inside the eyeball due to glaucoma or ocular hypertension
Used by Mature
Timolol for pregnant and lactating women Category C:  Animal studies have shown an adverse effect on the fetus, but there have been no controlled studies in pregnant women. Drugs should only be used if the expected benefit outweighs the risk to the fetus.

Timolol can be absorbed into breast milk. If you are breastfeeding, do not use this medicine without consulting your doctor first.

Drug form Eye drops

Warning Before Using Timolol 

Timolol should only be used according to a doctor's prescription. The following are things that need to be considered before using timolol:

  • Tell your doctor about any history of allergies you have. Timolol should not be used by someone who is allergic to this drug.
  • Tell your doctor if you have or currently have asthma , chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD ), stroke, diabetes , liver disease, thyroid disease, kidney disease, myasthenia gravis , heart disease, or arrhythmias .
  • Tell your doctor if you have an eye infection , eye injury, or have recently had eye surgery.
  • Do not drive a vehicle or do activities that require alertness while taking timolol, because this drug can cause blurred vision.
  • Tell your doctor if you are pregnant, breastfeeding or planning a pregnancy.
  • Do not use contact lenses ( soft lenses ) while using timolol eye drops.
  • Tell your doctor if you are taking certain medications, supplements or herbal products.
  • Tell your doctor that you are using timolol if you are planning to have any medical procedure, such as surgery or dental surgery.
  • Discuss with your doctor about using timolol in children under 2 years of age.
  • See your doctor immediately if you experience a drug allergic reaction, serious side effects, or overdose after using timolol.

Dosage and Rules for Using Timolol

The dosage and duration of using timolol eye drops will be determined by the doctor according to the patient's age and the condition you want to treat.

The dose of timolol eye drops to reduce high pressure in the eye due to open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension is 1–2 drops, 1 time a day.

How to use Timolol properly

Follow the doctor 's advice and read the information printed on the timolol eye drop package before using it.

Wash your hands with running water and soap before using the medicine. Make sure not to touch the tip of the medicine bottle to avoid contamination.

Tilt your head back and pull the lower eyelid to form a pocket and then drop the medicine into it. After the medicine is dropped, close your eyes and press the corner of the eye that is close to the nose for 1-2 minutes, so that the medicine can penetrate more.

Avoid pressing and rubbing your eyes, or blinking so that the medicine can work properly. If you need to put more than 1 drop of medicine in the same eye, wait 5 minutes before dripping it again. Make sure to always wash your hands after using the medicine.

If you use contact lenses, remove them before using timolol eye drops. Wait at least 15 minutes after using timolol before putting contact lenses back in.

If you forget to take the drug, use it immediately if the schedule for using the next dose is not too close. If it is close, ignore the dose and do not double the next dose.

Perform routine eye health checks to assist doctors in monitoring the development of eye conditions and the level of effectiveness of drugs.

Keep the medicine in a closed container. Avoid storing the medicine in hot, humid places or exposed to direct sunlight. Keep this drug out of reach of children.

Interactions of Timolol with Other Drugs

The following are interaction effects that can occur when using timolol together with other drugs:

  • Increased risk of hypotension and bradycardia when used with reserpine
  • Increased risk of side effects when used with antihypertensive drugs, such as metidopa
  • Increased risk of slow heart rate when used with quinidine
  • Decreased effectiveness of the drug timolol when used with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen or indomethacin

Side Effects and Dangers of Timolol

Side effects that can arise after using timolol are:

  • Headache
  • Eye irritation
  • Dry eyes
  • Blurred vision
  • Itchy eyes
  • Red eye
  • There is a stinging feeling in the eye

Check with your doctor if these side effects don't improve or get worse. Immediately consult a doctor if an allergic drug reaction or more serious side effects occur, such as:

  • Heavy dizziness
  • Swollen or sore eyes
  • Tingling in hands or feet
  • It's hard to breathe
  • Swelling of the legs
  • Slow or  irregular heart rate
  • Faint
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