Wrinkles are conditions characterized by folds, lines, or wrinkles on the surface of the skin. Wrinkles occur naturally due to the aging process, but can also appear faster due to several factors.

The structure and texture of the skin is influenced by genetic factors. However, as we age, the skin undergoes an aging process. This condition makes the skin thin, dry, sagging, and slow to experience rejuvenation. The elasticity of the skin is also reduced until wrinkles appear.

There are many treatment methods to help smooth and disguise wrinkles. Treatment options can be over-the-counter drugs or medical procedures.

Causes of Wrinkles

Wrinkles can be caused by many factors, including:

1. Aging

As we age, the elasticity of the skin will decrease. In addition, decreased fat and collagen production can also cause dry and wrinkled skin.

2. Exposure to ultraviolet rays

Long-term exposure to ultraviolet (UV) rays can accelerate the aging process of the skin . This is because UV rays damage elastin and collagen in the inner layer of the skin ( dermis ). Damage to both connective tissue will cause the skin to sag so that wrinkles appear faster.

3. Cigarettes

The nicotine content in cigarettes can cause the blood vessels in the outer layer of the skin to narrow. The condition causes the blood flow to the skin to be disturbed so that the skin lacks oxygen and nutrition. Smoking can also damage collagen and elastin, thus accelerating the appearance of wrinkles.

4. Facial expressions

Every time a person forms a facial expression, such as frowning or squinting, the facial muscles will form wrinkles under the surface of the skin. As we age, facial muscles will lose their flexibility and wrinkles will become more visible.

In addition to the factors mentioned above, the appearance of wrinkles can also be related to several factors, such as:

  • Ancestry
  • Lack of melanin
  • Hormonal changes
  • Weight loss

Symptoms of Wrinkles

Wrinkles are characterized by folds, lines, or wrinkles on the surface of the skin. Wrinkles can appear in various areas, such as the face (forehead, mouth, and around the eyes), neck, upper arms, and the back of the hands.

When should you go to the doctor?

Check with a doctor if the appearance of wrinkles affects your appearance. The doctor will assess the wrinkles on the skin and determine the treatment plan that suits your needs.

Wrinkle Diagnosis

The doctor will usually only perform a physical examination to assess the condition of wrinkles that appear. If the patient is still young, the doctor will ask about his habits and lifestyle to identify risk factors for premature aging.

Wrinkle handling

Wrinkle treatment aims to help smooth and disguise wrinkles. The treatment method will be determined by the doctor based on the patient's needs.


One of the methods to overcome wrinkles is with the use of medicines, such as:

  • Retinoid
    Retinoid is a derivative of vitamin A that is effective in overcoming wrinkles and skin aging. Retinoids work by neutralizing free radicals that can trigger collagen damage while stimulating  collagen production .
  • Alpha hydroxy acid (AHA)
    AHA is a group of natural acids that can be found in fruit, such as lactic acid or  glycolic acid . AHA works by removing the top layer of dead skin cells, as well as increasing the thickness of the inner skin layer.
  • Antioxidants
    Antioxidants are compounds that prevent or slow cell damage. These compounds can be found naturally in vegetables and fruits, or in supplements. Some examples of antioxidants are beta-carotene, lutein, and vitamins A, C, and E.
  • Moisturizing cream
    Patients can also use an over-the-counter anti-wrinkle moisturizing cream . However, the cream does not effectively remove wrinkles, but only disguises them.

Medical procedures

Another method to overcome wrinkles is with medical procedures, such as botox, dermabrasion, or PRP . Each of these procedures can provide different results and cause various side effects.

Keep in mind that there is no way to stop the skin aging process. Therefore, this procedure should be repeated so that the results last a long time.

Some of those medical procedures are:

1. Peeling

Peeling  aims to exfoliate the top layer of skin and grow new skin that looks younger. This procedure uses glycolic acid, salicylic acid, or trichloroacetic acid.

2. Dermabrasion

This procedure aims to scrape the outer layer of the skin using a special tool. The area of ​​skin treated with dermabrasion will be red and sensitive, but afterwards new, firmer skin will grow.

3. Microdermabrasion

Similar to dermabrasion,  microdermabrasion  also aims to rejuvenate the skin by scraping off the outer layer of skin. The difference is that dermabrasion is more suitable for fair-skinned patients, while microdermabrasion can be performed on all skin types.

4. Type A botox injection

Botox injections ( botulinum toxin ) can remove wrinkles on the forehead and around the eyes. Even so, the results only last 3 to 4 months so it is necessary to re-inject to maintain the results.

5. Laser resurfacing

This method aims to destroy the outer layer of the skin and stimulate the production of collagen to grow new, firmer skin. The therapy performed can be in the form of ablation or non-ablation laser therapy, depending on the condition of wrinkles experienced by the patient.

6.  Ultrasound therapy

In addition to being one of the methods to diagnose a disease, ultrasound can also be used to remove wrinkles. Ultrasound therapy or ultherapy , such as HIFU  ( high-intensity focused ultrasound ) ,  can be used to overcome wrinkles on the face, neck, chin, and chest.

7. Plastic surgery

One example of plastic surgery for the face is  a facelift  or face lift operation. This procedure is performed by removing excess skin and fat from the face and neck, then tightening the surrounding muscles and ligaments. The results of facelift surgery can last 7 to 10 years.

8. Injection of tissue filler ( filler )

The filler method is performed by injecting fat, collagen, or hyaluronic acid into the skin, to flatten wrinkles and folds. This procedure is generally only effective for 6-9 months, depending on the location of the wrinkles, the materials used, and the volume of the filler .

Wrinkle Complications

Wrinkles that appear on the surface of the skin are also a sign that the skin area is experiencing dryness. Dry skin is generally not dangerous, but if left untreated it can cause complications in the form of:

  • Atopic eczema , due to severe dry skin that causes the skin to become red, cracked, and inflamed
  • Infection, due to the entry of bacteria through dry, cracked skin

In addition, people who experience signs of aging, including wrinkles, can experience problems in socializing due to a loss of self-confidence.

Wrinkle Prevention

There are some simple steps that can be taken to prevent wrinkles and make the skin  look youthful , namely:

  • Avoiding exposure to sunlight
    Protect the skin from exposure to UV rays by wearing hats, sunglasses, and long-sleeved shirts. In addition, use sunscreen with an SPF content of 30 or more every time you go out. The use of sunscreen should be repeated every 2 hours if you are still active outdoors.
  • Using moisturizer
    Skin moisturizer products can prevent dry skin so the appearance of wrinkles can be avoided. Hydrating toner and essence can also be used to help prevent and overcome dry skin.
  • Quit smoking
    Someone who has been smoking for years can still prevent wrinkles from appearing more by  quitting smoking as soon as possible .
  • Living a healthy diet
    Research shows that increasing the intake of fruits and vegetables can protect the skin from early wrinkles.
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