Zoonotic diseases are infectious diseases that are transmitted from animals to humans. This disease can be a viral, bacterial, fungal, or parasitic infection that is transmitted through direct contact with animals, animal bites, or contaminated food, water, and the environment.
Zoonotic diseases can cause outbreaks to pandemics in various countries, including Indonesia. Outbreaks caused by zoonotic diseases in Indonesia include bird flu, hantavirus , dengue fever, chikungunya , and rabies.
COVID-19 , which is currently a worldwide pandemic, is thought to be a zoonotic disease of bats. The corona virus that causes this disease is transmitted to humans through direct contact with these animals.
Causes and Symptoms of Zoonotic Diseases
Based on the type, zoonotic diseases are caused by different microorganisms. For example, dengue fever is caused by the Dengue virus which is transmitted through mosquito bites. While rabies occurs due to infection with the rabies virus which is transmitted through dog bites.
Symptoms of zoonotic diseases can vary, depending on the type of disease experienced by the sufferer. However, common symptoms of zoonotic diseases are:
- High fever
- Severe headache
- Nausea and vomiting
- Yellow skin and eyes
Treatment and Prevention of Zoonotic Diseases
Treatment for zoonotic diseases depends on the cause. Methods of treatment can be in the form of vaccination against rabies, and antifungal or antiviral drugs. Doctors can also prescribe drugs to relieve symptoms, such as fever medicine and pain relievers.
Zoonotic diseases can be prevented by maintaining cleanliness. Some ways that can be done are:
- Wash hands regularly after using the toilet, before and after cooking, before eating, or after coming into contact with animals.
- Wash food ingredients thoroughly before processing.
- Cook ingredients until cooked.
- Use insect repellent or other insect repellant.
- Avoid animal bites or scratches from animals.
- Avoid touching wild animals.